Las Vegas Shooting 1-Oct-2017 - An acoustic analysis and personal observations

The Vegas mass-shooting on October 1st of 2017 was a tragedy. In this article i attempt to provide some data for researchers, but primarily i attempt to provide some answers for the victims.

See the change log at the end of this document for a complete revision history.


First and foremost, my heart goes out to everyone affected by this senseless waste of human life. If you were one of the many people that were present at the Route 91 Harvest Festival in Las Vegas on the night of October 1st, 2017, then know that this work is dedicated largely to you.

Unlike some others who are capitalizing on this event, i am not seeking any monetary gain for my work. I decided to do this research because it bothers me deeply that so many of the witnesses and the public at large are being given answers that, in my opinion, are sometimes deeply flawed and therefore i'd like to make an attempt to provide some evidence-based answers that are more accurate than some of the garbage floating around on the web.

Anyone who has researched the Vegas Route 91 Harvest Festival mass-shooting is likely to have heard claims from several witnesses who have stated, to varying degrees of certainty, that multiple gunmen were acting in concert with, or in place of the primary suspect, Stephen Craig Paddock, and it is this facet of the shooting which is the focus of this investigation. To be clear, the primary scope of this analysis was purposely limited to determining whether or not more than one gunman targeted the Route 91 Harvest Festival venue specifically, as well as to determine the approximate location of the shooter or shooters.

Let me be clear about how the term "multiple gunmen" is used here. As many others, i have also come across several reports of multiple gunmen targeting the venue as well as shooting incidents at various other locations in Las Vegas on the day of the shooting, including at the Bellagio, Caesars Palace, Planet Hollywood, the Tropicana, Hooters and others. While many of us are well aware of how dishonest and corrupt the mainstream media is, we must also account for the fact that it is sometimes the earliest news reports of an event which are filtered the least and therefore most revealing and in this case we have available both the news footage and the raw police scanner audio which was recorded live as this event unfolded.

Upon listening to the police recordings it becomes apparent that for each report of shootings at the aforementioned hotels, strike teams were quickly deployed to investigate those reports and in every case the allegations were unsubstantiated. Subsequent evidence, or lack thereof (few if any corroborating witnesses), confirm this. For example, regarding the alleged shooting at Hooters and reports of bodies being carried out, it appears this location was used as a staging area for emergency vehicles and victims of the Harvest Festival shooting. I am not certain of this, but i think this is a likely explanation according to the evidence i have examined. That said, again, my primary focus here is whether more than one gunman targeted the Route 91 Harvest Festival specifically and not whether there were simultaneous shootings elsewhere.

Perhaps many are aware of the acoustic analysis of the Harvest Festival shooting preformed by Mike Adams of Natural News in which he claims to have proven that there was indeed a second gunman targeting the concert venue. Adams stated in his video that he performed a "forensic spectral analysis" of audio samples recorded by witnesses in order to reach his conclusion. He further stated that the entire process consumed only about three hours of his time and i honestly have to shake my head and wonder what kind of "forensic spectral analysis" can be preformed in roughly three hours during a Sunday afternoon. To my knowledge, Mike has not followed up on his initial findings in order to accurately locate the second shooter he claims existed, even though he stated that doing so would be rather trivial. Given the scope of this tragedy and the number of people affected, both directly and indirectly, i find this incredibly irresponsible. (for more on Adams, see Mike Adams, an Alex 'Bullshit' Jones wannabe)

I think it is also irresponsible for Mike to promote what he himself admits is an unfinished analysis, across multiple high-traffic websites including YouTube, Veterans Today, Shooting News and Natural News (his own website), with seemingly more regard for how many views, 'clicks' and 'likes' he can acquire rather than seriously consider how such information may negatively impact the victims of this event, their families and the public in general if it is incorrect, as i believe my own research demonstrates. His clickbait titled YouTube video, Forensic acoustic proof of SECOND shooter in the Las Vegas massacre, had received over one million views as of this writing before it was removed and he continued to capitalize upon this massacre with several follow-up videos including another titled, The public astonished to discover this PROOF of a second Las Vegas shooter. In fact, as i think the evidence presented here clearly dictates, not only did Adams fail to prove there was a second shooter, he also neglected to adequately explain or publish the math and methods he used to reach his conclusions and therefore his hypothesis cannot be considered to be anything resembling science.

There are many victims of this slaughter and i'm sure that those left alive to grieve are desperate for answers, especially with regard to the motive of Stephan Paddock. When these traumatized people come across a half-baked 'analysis' alleging a second gunman without offering any hard evidence to back the claim, i think they are being victimized even further. If there was more than one gunman, fine, but there must be evidence to support such a conclusion. That said, i must credit Adams for inspiring me to pick up the ball that he prematurely dropped and attempt to carry it to its logical conclusion which is to determine if there were multiple shooters and, if so, their approximate locations.

After watching and listening to many of the videos recorded by eyewitnesses, i was also initially quite certain there was more than one shooter because i thought i clearly heard overlapping gunfire as well as very different tones of gunfire. The possibility of a second shooter did not surprise me in the least. As a matter of fact, i had expected to confirm Adams' claim of a second shooter. I am also quite aware of the bigger picture here and how events like this are often manufactured to be used for political purposes.

In order to confirm or refute the multiple shooter theory, i needed to determine the specific locations near the concert venue where several witness recorded their videos so i could then plot those locations on a map using reference points from their videos. The locations of the witnesses, in conjunction with the audio they recorded, would then make it possible to calculate the difference between the sounds of bullet impacts or supersonic booms and the sound of the muzzle reports. This delay can then be used to determine whether there were multiple gunmen, as well as the approximate locations of the gunmen once several witness recordings from different positions are analyzed. If this sounds like some kind of black magic, i assure you it isn't. The math required to accomplish this is simple.

The sounds of bullet impacts, supersonic shock waves and muzzle reports needs to be thoroughly addressed because it is here, during the opening minutes of this event, that a significant mistake was made by many witnesses and this mistake has led several researchers to suggest or conclude that there were indeed multiple shooters.

The problem here is that there were several very different gun related sounds that night and the dramatic difference between them has been incorrectly interpreted by some as sounds which originated from different weapons in different locations when in fact all of the sounds can be traced to the same origin. One of the sounds was generated by bullets impacting the asphalt, glass, metal and other objects at the venue. Another sound was produced by the supersonic boom produced by a projectile traveling faster than the speed of sound. The third sound was produced by the muzzle reports (the 'bang') of the weapon firing those bullets. In the witness video recordings the sounds of the supersonic boom typically have a higher frequency and amplitude and a shorter duration than the sound of the muzzle report. In other words they are generally louder and sharper, sounding more like a 'crack' than a 'bang', while the muzzle reports sounded more like a 'bang' and were not generally as loud at the concert area. I am quite certain that those witnesses who stated that the gunfire did not sound authentic, such as those who attributed it to firecrackers for example, said so because they queued in more on the louder cracks of the supersonic booms which sounded much more like firecrackers, rather than on the muzzle reports which followed shortly thereafter. This is an innocent mistake, one which i initially made myself even though i am familiar with guns, however i cannot overemphasize the significance of this mistake because it alone has sent otherwise creditable people off on wild goose chases for a second gunman which the acoustic evidence does not reveal.

Another interesting aspect that was likely in play during this event is something called 'normalcy bias' which is basically where the mind attempts to put a radically abnormal event, like being shot at, into a normalized context. This phenomena may explain the behavior of one apparently drunk guy who stood up among a sea of people attempting to protect themselves in order to offer a one-fingered salute to the shooter while bullets were raining down in his immediate vicinity. I noticed many other people behaving in a similar way where they were casually walking around, failing to take cover, failing to determine where the shots were coming from, attributing the gunshots to firecrackers, etc..

The Stephanie interview

Watching and listening to the witness videos without having a background in gunfire can easily mislead one to conclude that there were multiple shooters and i'm quite certain that many of those present at the concert drew this erroneous conclusion in real-time, some even stating that they felt as though they were being chased, such as Stephanie does in this interview with Fox 5:

Video title: Vegas-Paddock shooting - Fox 5 interview and commentary regarding witness Stephanie 1-Oct-2017

When you extract the audio portions of the witness videos from the venue and look at the waveforms with audio editing software however -- and i very much need to stress look, rather than just listen -- it is readily apparent that while there are indeed different and very distinct sounds related to gunfire, it is quite obvious that they are married to each other in repeating patterns.

I'm certain Stephanie wasn't being deceptive when she stated that it felt as though she were being chased, nor when she said she could not understand how all of the gunfire could have come from one shooter, however we can understand how the trauma of an event of this magnitude could easily result in an inaccurate interpretation of the event, especially when it is being recalled shortly after its conclusion and before she has had a chance to fully process what happened. An example of this is when Stephanie states that she felt like she had been running for approximately 30 minutes while the gunfire continued, though we know it lasted lasted only about 10 minutes. Like many other witnesses and researchers, Stephanie is probably not intimately familiar with gunfire and has probably never experienced a mass-shooting before.

How evidence was processed

My research into the acoustic aspect of the Vegas shooting went something like this:

  1. Procure multiple witness videos for analysis where the witnesses were in close proximity to the music concert at the Route 91 Harvest Festival
  2. Plot the witness locations on a map using visual references from their videos
  3. Extract the audio tracks from the witness videos to be used for waveform analysis
  4. Note the times of the gunfire bursts and bullet impacts or supersonic booms in each audio file for each witness recording
  5. Analyze each burst of gunfire in each audio file in order to find samples that would provide good data with regard to calculating bullet impact/supersonic boom to muzzle report delay times
  6. Determine the time offset between bullet impacts/supersonic booms and the following muzzle reports for each sample where the quality of the sample permitted
  7. Using some simple math and the bullet impact/supersonic boom to muzzle report time difference, plot a circle around each witness that indicates the approximate distance of the shooter from that witness
  8. Gather enough data from enough witnesses to be able to indicate the position or positions of the shooter or shooters which can be determined from where the circles around multiple witnesses converge

'Looking' at the sounds

Bullet Impact Followed By Muzzle Report Waveform
Example waveform showing bullet impacts or supersonic booms and following muzzle reports from the Las Vegas mass-shooting, 1-Oct-2017

The audio waveform above represents a very typical rapid fire sequence such as Stephanie experienced. Very similar sequences are found in nearly all of the multimedia files which i have examined from witnesses located at or near the festival venue, though to widely varying degrees of quality depending on the amount of background noise. This particular sample is from the 00:06:04-00:06:07 time frame of an audio track extracted from a video titled, RAW VIDEO: Escape from Las Vegas shooting.

In the graphic we can readily identify two distinct sounds, one of a higher amplitude which represents the supersonic booms or bullet impacts of the projectile, and the other a lower amplitude which soon follows and represents the muzzle reports from the gun itself which is the only sound typically heard when a gun is fired, unless you're unfortunate enough to be on the receiving end. You will notice that the last three supersonic booms/bullet impacts marked on the graphic are closely followed by the last three muzzle reports from the gun. The delay between the two sounds depends upon the velocity of the projectiles, the speed of sound and the distance between the shooter and the recording device. Once you recognize the difference in the appearance of the sounds, you should be able to identify nearly all of the lower and higher amplitude spikes besides those which i have marked.

This pattern is found in nearly every one of the rapid fire bursts recorded by the witnesses. The only exceptions that come to mind are samples which were recorded far enough away from the venue that either the bullet impacts, the supersonic booms, or the muzzle reports were not recorded, or instances where the background noise overrode these sounds.

It is vital to understand that for every video that i have analyzed which recorded rapid fire bursts where the projectiles impacted at or near the venue, they all recorded both sounds in a distinct pattern, the first being the supersonic booms or bullet impacts (striking metal, asphalt, or glass in some cases), followed approximately 30 to 40 milliseconds later by the sound of the muzzle reports.

The reason the bullet impacts and supersonic booms are heard before the muzzle report of the gun by the concert goers is because the bullet (assuming a .223 cal. Remington 55 gr. cartridge) is traveling roughly three times the speed of sound (approximately 3239 feet per second muzzle velocity) while the sound of the muzzle report (the gunshot) is traveling much slower at approximately 1138.52 feet per second (80 F air temperature assumed) and therefore the impact of the projectile or the supersonic boom it produces is heard by the witnesses before the muzzle report when the witness is located closer to the target area than the weapon (the distance between the venue and the snipers nest has been estimated to be approximately 1,360 ft. or 453 yards). If these two, very distinct sounds were overlapping gunfire as some have claimed, then the following conditions would have to be true:

  1. Both gunman would have had to be using a bump-stock or similar device because the unique rhythm of the rapid fire sequences produced by such a device can be clearly heard in all of the samples analyzed.
  2. Both of the gunmen would have to had fired in almost perfect concert for every burst-fire sequence with one of them -- and it would have to be the same one each time -- leading the other by approximately 30 to 40 milliseconds and they would had to have ceased firing in the same order with roughly the same 30 to 40 millisecond offset.

This is crucial because these conditions alone largely disprove the multiple shooter theory since it is all but impossible for two human beings to coordinate their fire to this degree. In order to further drive these points home, let's demonstrate a typical rapid fire sequence in text form where 'a' represents the sound of bullets impacts or supersonic booms from the projectiles at the venue and 'b' represents the sound of the muzzle reports:


Although this example is crude, it is indeed representative of the actual gunfire. You will notice two things here which hold true in the actual video recordings and the data presented later and they are, 1), the delay between the supersonic booms/bullet strikes (a) and the following muzzle reports (b) is consistent. 2) the delay between the gunshots is not at all consistent and this is because, unlike an automatic weapon, a bump-stock device relies heavily upon forces and pressures provided by the body in order to operate it. In other words, both sounds follow exactly the same cadence with the bullet impact/supersonic boom always being followed 30 to 40 milliseconds later by the muzzle report. This would be essentially impossible were the sounds generated by two guns fired by two human beings.

Again, in order to reach a logical conclusion as to whether there was more than one shooter, it is vital to look at the audio waveforms of the recordings using audio editing software rather than only listen to them. Once you 'see' the sound and realize that there are two distinct sounds with different amplitudes and tones, yet both follow the same rhythm with approximately the same time offset, it becomes obvious that they both originate from the same source.

The 'taxi video'

Regarding what i call the 'taxi video', of which my copy is titled Vegas Shooting Taxi Driver's Video ! Must Watch B4 Well You Know , The Take Down !, it seems this video in particular has attracted loads of attention from those who wish to promote a multiple shooter scenario and it is not at all difficult to understand why they conclude this when you listen to it:

Video title: Taxi video of Las Vegas mass shooting at Mandalay Bay

This video was recorded by a woman operating a taxi in very close proximity to the Mandalay Bay hotel main entrance near the same wing (north) and approximately 32 floors below where the sniper nest is alleged to have been. In it there are several rapid fire sequences, some of which are very loud and clear, however we can also hear gunfire which sounds significantly muted and farther away. Note though that the two sounds do not overlap. The driver even comments about this, stating that the gunfire sounds "like it's coming from farther away". Many people have concluded that these different sounds present clear evidence of a second shooter, but this conclusion is incorrect in my opinion. Having said that, i must admit that i too had initially assumed that multiple shooters were firing from different locations when i listened to this video, but i eventually realized that there is a less dramatic and more logical explanation.

What i believe explains the different sounding gunfire is that the shooter, presumably in the Mandalay Bay hotel room, moved away from the broken window in order to fire at another threat, perhaps someone approaching their position from inside the hotel such as when Jesus Campos or Stephen Schuck were shot at. We are told the gunman fired approximately 200 rounds through the front door of room 32-135 at hotel security officer Jesus Campos and, later, hotel engineer Stephen Schuck. If that is true, and it certainly appears it is, then the shooter would had to have moved well away from the broken window of the hotel room in order to fire through the hotel room entry door at Campos and Schuck and this obviously would have resulted in a dramatic difference in the way the gunfire sounded to anyone outside the hotel. We also know the gunman fired multiple rounds at an airport fuel tank and those rounds presumably were fired from the broken window in room 32-134.

While the difference in the sound of the firing sequences as heard in the taxi driver video could possibly be explained by the use of different weapons and/or the shooter moving between the two broken windows in rooms 32-134 and 32-135, i think the most logical conclusion is that it was simply the result of the gunman shooting first from the broken window in 32-135, where all of the .223 casings were found, and then repositioning in order to shoot through the hotel room door at the approaching staff. Either way, i hope i have sufficiently explained how noticeably different sounds of gunfire could easily have originated from the same general location, and even the same weapon.

The result

According to the data i have derived from multiple witness videos, the hypothesis that i believe to be correct at this time is that there was only one shooter that targeted the venue at the Route 91 Harvest Festival in Las Vegas on the night of October 1st, 2017, and that shooter was located in or near the MGM owned Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino.

The locations of several witnesses who were positioned close to the festival are plotted on the map below. Surrounding and centered around each witness is a colored circle specific to that witness which, based on the data below, indicates the approximate distance of the shooter from that particular witness. The diameter of each circle was determined by calculating the projectile supersonic boom, or bullet impact, to muzzle report delay times as per the 'bullet time to distance' chart below.

If we look only at the data for a single witness, then the shooter could be positioned anywhere along the circumference of the circle surrounding that witness, however when the data for multiple witnesses in different locations is plotted, we can then determine not only an approximate distance of the shooter or shooters, but also their approximate position, or multiple positions if there was more than one. Looking at the image below, all of the circles around the witnesses converge closest to the Mandalay Bay which is consistent with a single shooter positioned in or near the hotel. The smaller red circle nearest the Mandalay Bay indicates where the circles tend to converge the tightest and thus indicates the approximate position of the gunman.

Las Vegas shooting, 1-Oct-2017, witness positions
Las Vegas shooting, 1-Oct-2017, where the small red circle indicates the most likely position of the gunman based upon the data derived from each witness video

The gap between where the circles converge and the Mandalay Bay could be because the bullet weight that i chose (55 gr.) is not accurate or perhaps the amount of gunpowder used in the cartridges was not accurate. Either of these variables would affect the diameter of the circles around the witnesses equally and thus put the shooter somewhat closer or further from the Mandalay bay, but still along the same line between the venue and the hotel. There are also other variables to consider, such as the precise location of the witnesses which i was not able to determine, though i believe the margin of error should be no more than a few yards and much less than that in some cases where there were clear visual references in their videos that could be accurately correlated with a location on a map. There may also be other variables which i have not considered, though i think it is unlikely that any i might have missed would significantly affect the general conclusion.

Regardless of the potential inaccuracies in my data as far locating the shooter, we still have the 'taxi video' and other audio/video evidence which clearly indicates that the gunman was in very close proximity to her position near the main entrance of the Mandalay Bay. Again, it is not only the raw data that indicates a single gunman, but also the sound of the gunfire which, except for the expected variations in amplitude, are very similar across the spectrum of witness videos i have analyzed in terms of the average firing rate, the subtle variations in the firing rate which is indicative of a bump-stock device, the burst times and the tone.

Personal observations

Following are a few of my personal observations that i think are relevant to this case.


I think it must be seriously considered that there are several instances of potential foreknowledge of this event, one of which arrived in the form of several posts on the public message board 4chan on September 10, 2017, roughly three weeks prior to the attack, by someone identifying them self as "john":

The Las Vegas mass-shooting and the "john" posts on 4chan
Three posts by "john" on the 4chan message board dated 10-Sep-2017 which indicate foreknowledge of the 1-Oct-2017 mass-shooting in Las Vegas

Another potential instance of foreknowledge resulted from statements made to the news media by an alleged eyewitness, Brianna Hendricks, who stated that a Hispanic-looking woman, accompanied by a male subject, pushed her way to the front row of the concert and told people that they were 'all going to die' approximately 45 minutes prior to the time the shooting began. Brianna stated the following:

It seemed she was telling us to either warn us, or she was part of it and she was telling us because she knew we were going to die. It was so scary.


It felt like she had knowledge of what was about to happen.


She said they're all around us and we were going to die.

According to Snopes -- a highly dubious resource if ever there was one -- they interviewed Brianna and claim that she altered her story in that the remarks of the unidentified woman may have been directed solely at a single person or small group which this woman had a dispute with. If this is true, could such alterations be the result of pressure upon her to conform to a predetermined narrative, or did Brianna feel that her original statement was inaccurate and wanted to correct it? Or perhaps she just described the event in a different way. I don't know the answer, but i think the bigger question is why the LVMPD failed to comment regarding the testimony offered by Brianna Hendricks and the unidentified woman who allegedly made the statements she spoke of. For more on the issue, watch Flaw in the Matrix - Las Vegas Shooting which includes an interview with Shawn Hendricks, Brianna's mother.

It is also quite interesting that James Murren, the CEO of MGM Resorts International which owns the Mandalay Bay, dumped 259,760 shares of stock on the 7th of September, 2017, and another 34,390 shares on the 8th for a total value of $10,024,632 and he did so during a time when the value of the stock was apparently rising. What kind of confidence is instilled among the investors when the CEO dumps the vast majority of their holdings in the company? The day after the shooting MGM Resorts International stock fell 5.7%. From Disobedient Media:

It’s currently unclear why Murren chose to sell when he did. To date, MGM’s stock has not experienced a significant decline in value due to the repurchasing program. It could be interpreted to run against the company’s interests for the CEO to convey a sense of urgency in the selling of his shares by disposing of them immediately after the commencement of his company’s share repurchase program. It’s also strange that the CEO of a company would sell more than half of their stake (let alone 80%) in the company that they represented.

Further details regarding these stock transactions can be found at The Ledger Gazette.

James Murren was not the only one who profited huge as a result of the falling value of the stock. On August 14, 2017, George Soros placed a put call for 1,350,000 shares on MGM Resorts International for a profit of $42,242,000, the details of which are covered in the following video, Follow the Money / George Soros - Las Vegas Shooting, by Jake Morphonios. According to his YouTube page, "Jake Morphonios is the chief investigator for the Blackstone Intelligence Network. His background is in financial crimes investigation, journalism and Middle Eastern geopolitics. Jake has worked as a strategist and adviser to several political campaigns, including those of presidential candidates Steve Forbes and Ron Paul.".

For details regarding some of the other profiteers of the MGM stock price fall, see the article Insider Trading and Financial Anomalies Surrounding the Las Vegas Attack. The LVMPD and the FTC have yet to comment on these trades as far as i am aware.

The whirlybird sniper

Regarding the completely baseless speculation that there was a sniper shooting from a helicopter, good luck proving that a), it happened, and b), that a legally required anti-collision beacon or strobe light, which happens to be flashing terribly out of sync with the gunfire, is actually muzzle flashes. As per the FAA Night Operations Handbook for aircraft, chapter 13, pg. 13-7, 13-8:

All recently manufactured aircraft certificated for night flight must have an anticollision light that makes the aircraft more visible to other pilots. This light is either a red or white flashing light and may be in the form of a rotating beacon or a strobe. While anticollision lights are required for night visual flight rules (VFR) flights, they may be turned off any time they create a distraction for the pilot.

Understand that i am not stating as 100% certifiable fact that only one shooter targeted the concert, but i will confidently state that the data which i have accumulated over the better part of a week, including what my eyes see and ears hear, does not indicate the presence of a second shooter, not at, nor near the venue and certainly not from a helicopter. Again, for the purpose of this work, i have not seriously considered shooting events which may have occurred at other locations, though every one of these reports was apparently addressed by police and found to be without merit.

The drugs

In my opinion, Paddock does not seem to fit the profile of a mass-murderer given what information is available at this time, however if he was in fact prescribed diazepam (Valium) as indeed appears to be the case, then the potential side-effects of this dangerous and mind altering drug must be considered as a possible factor for his behavior. It is also well worth mentioning that such drugs are present in many mass shootings dating at least as far back as Columbine (20-Apr-1999) where Kevin Harris was apparently taking fluvoxamine (Luvox) and Dylan Klebold is alleged to have been taking Paxil and Zoloft. One could argue that it sounds quite reasonable that such drugs readily appear in these mass-shooting events because the people taking them were diagnosed and treated for psychological problems, however at least some of the previous mass-shooters showed no tendency toward violence whatsoever prior to the consumption of these drugs and in fact some have written or verbalized how the drugs made them feel angry, depressed and/or disconnected soon after they began taking them. The potential side-effects for diazepam, as well as many of the mind-altering SSRI drugs, are quite alarming and include the following:

  • aggressiveness
  • agitation
  • anxiety
  • confusion
  • delusions
  • depression
  • discouragement
  • false beliefs that cannot be changed by facts
  • feeling sad or empty
  • feeling that others are watching you or controlling your behavior
  • feeling, seeing, or hearing things that are not there
  • hyper-excitability
  • insomnia
  • irritability
  • lack of memory of what takes place after a certain event
  • loss of interest or pleasure (reported by Marilou Danley to investigators)
  • nightmares
  • outbursts of anger
  • psychoses
  • rage
  • restlessness
  • seizures
  • sleep disturbances
  • stimulation
  • unusual behavior (reported by Marilou Danley to investigators as well as by Paddock's doctor)
  • unusual tiredness or weakness (reported by Stephan Paddock to primary doctor, family, friends)
  • change in consciousness
  • loss of strength or energy (reported by Stephan Paddock to primary doctor, family, friends)
  • muscle pain or weakness (reported by Stephan Paddock to primary doctor, family, friends)
  • unusual drowsiness, dullness, tiredness, weakness, or feeling of sluggishness (reported to primary doctor by Stephan Paddock)
  • decreased interest in sexual intercourse (reported by Marilou Danley to investigators)

From an article on titled Valium Overdose Symptoms, Signs, Effects & Treatment, we find a list of symptoms for someone who consumes too much Valium and they include the following:

  • agitation
  • anxiety
  • panic
  • lowered mental capacities
  • hallucinations
  • confusion

Also "inappropriate behavior and other adverse behavioral effects have been reported when using benzodiazepines" according to the drug sheet on the FDA website.

We can turn to page 23 of the LVMPD Preliminary Investigative Report in order to confirm that Paddock seems to have been suffering from several problems which could be attributed to diazepam:

Marilou Danley stated Paddock’s demeanor changed over the course of the last year. According to her, Paddock had become "distant" and their relationship was no longer intimate.

And from page 24:

Paddock made numerous claims to friends and family that he consistently felt ill, in pain or fatigued.


The physician described Paddock as "odd" in behavior with "little emotion" shown. He believed Paddock may have had bipolar disorder however, Paddock did not want to discuss that topic further with him. Paddock also refused anti-depressant medication but accepted prescriptions for anxiety.

If Paddock refused anti-depressant medication, that would seem to indicate that his doctor had diagnosed him with depression. What role might this have played in the shooting, even without the side-effects associated with diazepam? What can happen when someone suffering from depression is prescribed diazepam which is intended to treat anxiety?

And finally from page 38:

The attached southeast bathroom had a tub along the north wall with two glass vacuum suction holders on top of the tub ledge, a sink counter along the south wall with toiletries to include a prescription for "Diazepam 10 MG" in the name of "Steve Paddock", and two inhalers.

The obvious questions here are, when was diazepam first prescribed and how much was being consumed by Paddock, because the symptoms reported by Paddock's doctor, his girlfriend and himself, are all in the list of side-effects for diazepam. According to, the maximum recommended dosage of diazepam for treating anxiety in an adult is 10 mg. four times per day and according to the police report, Paddock's prescription was for 10 mg.. Furthermore, under the section titled 'What should I avoid while taking diazepam?' on, it clearly states that alcohol should be avoided:

This medication may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.

Avoid drinking alcohol. Dangerous side effects could occur.

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with diazepam and lead to unwanted side effects. Discuss the use of grapefruit products with your doctor.

And yet on page 10 of the LVMPD Preliminary Investigative Report we read the following regarding the sequence of events for September 30:

From approximately 1204 to 1215 hours hotel staff serviced the private mini bar of room 32-134.

Was Paddock consuming alcohol along with diazepam and, if so, how much? How much diazepam was he taking? Was he taking more than what was prescribed? Are the side-effects of diazepam and alcohol the motive that law enforcement is seeking? We know from an autopsy conducted by Dr. Lisa Gavin of the Clark County coroner's office that nordiazepam, oxazepan and temazepan where found in Paddock's urine which apparently indicates the presence of diazepam. Though there is no mention of alcohol, this does not necessarily indicate that Paddock was not drinking.

In a UPI article regarding the autopsy titled Autopsy for Vegas shooter Stephen Paddock shows no insight into motives, we read:

A separate examination of his brain at Stanford University found no major abnormalities, including no evidence of Alzheimer's disease.

This statement seems to contradicts the very next sentence in the same article which says that "The brain had 'the most striking abnormality' in the hippocampus, a part of the brain involving human learning and memory." An article in the Los Angeles Times adds a bit more detail:

The autopsy also included a short report from Stanford University, which studied his brain to determine whether there was anything unusual. It revealed what it called "the most striking abnormality" in the hippocampus, a part of the brain involving human learning and memory. The report did not say whether the abnormalities might have affected his behavior.

At this point in time it is my opinion that the drug diazepam may have played a role in this shooting, however based on my research regarding the thoroughly corrupt, criminal and multi-billion dollar pharmaceutical industry, i can state to a high degree of certainty that if prescription drugs did in fact play a part in this shooting, this will never be revealed to the public, especially given that they are the largest donors to political parties and the mainstream media depends heavily upon them for advertising dollars.

From an article on the Waking Times website, Prozac Mass Murders: The Truth Comes to Light: "The Louisville Courier Journal reports that thirty years after Joseph Wesbecker went on a deadly shooting rampage in Louisville Kentucky, on September 14, 1989, the families and survivors of his actions have finally come forward to tell the truth. They were plaintiffs in a lawsuit against Eli Lilly because they had reason to believe that Prozac, manufactured by Lilly, had been the trigger that propelled Wesbecker on his violent rampage. Eli Lilly had paid these plaintiffs $20 million in hush money to conceal damaging evidence about Lilly’s culpability in marketing defective, deadly drugs from the jury in the Wesbecker- Eli Lilly trial."


Video title: Why Psychiatric Drugs Are More Dangerous Than You Ever Imagined

Video title: Reality Check: Mass Shootings & Psychiatric Drugs

The venue lights

Why were the venue lights switched on soon after the shooting started, thus illuminating the crowd and making them easier to target? Who made this decision?

The guns

Why all the guns? Even if we assume Paddock was selling guns, which appears to be likely according to the LVMPD, why cart a truck-load of guns to a well planned mass-shooting when you only need a few and you know that it's highly unlikely you're going to escape afterward? A handful of guns would have been sufficient, perhaps three to five for sniping and spraying which would allow for barrel overheating and varying distances, along with one or two for close range encounters with security and law enforcement. Finally, a handgun to end it all when your options run out because it's quite obvious that the suspect had little hope of escaping from the 32nd floor of a hotel in one of the most surveilled cities on the planet. So why all the guns? Does diazepam, possibly in combination with alcohol, provide an answer to the seemingly nonsensical decision to bring approximately 21 suitcases containing weapons and ammunition?

According to information contained in the final FIT police report, Paddock fired 14 of his guns, 11 of which were AR-15's, nearly all of them equipped with 100 round magazines:

Recovered in rooms 32-135 and 32-134 were 1057 shell casings. Forensic analysis was completed on all of the shell casings that were recovered. Of the rifles recovered from inside rooms 32-135 and 32-134, 14 were found to have been fired.

Video title: Stephen Paddock Mandalay Bay Surveillance Footage

And there's more

Matt Agorist asks five questions with no apparent answers regarding the Vegas-Paddock shooting in an his article, 5 Unanswered Questions that Still Remain 2 Years After the Vegas Shooting. The questions are:

  1. Report suggests Paddock’s girlfriend worked for the FBI
  2. Officers seen on body camera footage cowering in fear as Paddock murdered people one floor above them
  3. Paddock Reportedly Warned His Brain was ‘Hacked’ and He Was Under Gov’t Control
  4. Information suggesting Paddock was an arms dealer completely ignored by MSM
  5. Vegas police seen on video being instructed to turn off their body cameras

The first and third statements are most interesting to me. Was Paddock 'Sirhan'd' by the FBI or some dark part of the intelligence community? As crazy as it may sound, there is indeed a great deal of evidence that a persons mind can be controlled in such a way as to produce a Manchurian Candidate. Furthermore, the FBI has clear track record of manufacturing and aiding terrorists as i will touch upon in a moment. While Paddock's psychological problems, diazepam and potential alcohol consumption may be responsible for his delusional behavior, this doesn't answer the question of Marilou Danley allegedly listing the FBI as an employer on a credit application.

From the article:

The escort was reported missing by her boyfriend just after the shooting and a former escort who once dated Paddock spoke out about the sheer insanity involved in this case.

“She was telling girls after work that she was scared something would happen to her,” claimed former escort Mikaela, whose full name was withheld to protect her identity according to Radar Online. “She was booked the day before or the day of the shooting before she disappeared.”

According to her testimony, Paddock claimed to be a government experiment.
“There’s messages where Stephen is telling her he’s a government experiment and that they are listening to everything he says and does, and they can hack into his brain and take over,” Mikaela said.

If you combine the possibilities of Paddock being mind controlled with the proven track record of the FBI in creating terrorists along with the "john" posts on the 4chan message board which cannot be ignored (they reveal location, names and motive), it makes one wonder. And if that's the world we live in, what's next and what can be done to stop it?


Though i have no proof, based on my previous research into such events, i suspect there is a great deal more to this story than a "lone nut" and diazepam. I think this shooting may have served multiple agendas, including a continued assault on our freedoms, the opportunity for certain powerful investors (George Soros and Michael Chertoff according the "john" posts on 4chan) to profit from the sales of security equipment, as well as many others who profited from the drop in MGM's stock value, and potentially to instill yet more fear in the public mind which can then be leveraged to influence public opinion. I am also extremely suspicious of the FBI and what role they may have played (and i emphasize may) in the planning of this event. This corrupt organization has an incredibly disturbing track record of blatant criminal activity in many previous instances, including the deliberate manufacturing of domestic terrorists in order to later arrest them, thus "preventing" a terrorist attack that otherwise would likely not have occurred and justifying their enormous budget in the process.

On a personal note

This has been a difficult undertaking for me. Because i choose to do a video and audio analysis of the gunshots, and because i needed to hear every detail in the witness videos, i had to wear high quality headphones and this made it seem as though i was physically with the people at the concert venue. The screams and pleas for help and all of the noise and confusion during this horror lived inside my head for several days as i listened over and over again to these videos. It's difficult and unsettling to imagine what it was like for those that actually lived it.

Please feel free to share your comments. You need not register to leave a comment and if you wish to comment anonymously, just use a fake email address. If you were a witness to this event or have sensitive information to share, you have my assurance that your right to privacy will be maintained. You can contact me privately here.

The data

If you're curious about how the data for the map above was derived, read on. I may work further on this, so do not consider it complete. There may be errors, so do not consider it perfect. If you have any feedback, questions, or find any errors, feel free to leave a comment or contact me privately.

Note also that i have combined both bullet impacts and supersonic booms under the 'impact' heading since whether the first sound to reach the witnesses is a bullet impact or a supersonic boom is irrelevant because both would have been heard by the witnesses at the nearly precisely same time.

General observations

general observations

* several shot sequences are approximately 10 seconds

* no shot sequences seem to be any longer than 10-11 seconds

* some 10 second shot sequences are very close to other firing sequences, such 
as the 00:03:25-00:03:27 and 00:03:30-00:03:40 sequences in the [001] video - if 
the shooter had to reload after a 10 second burst, i doubt there was enough time 
to eject, reload, reacquire the target area and begin firing, nor do i think 
there was time to pick up another weapon which, for the example given, there is 
only approximately 3 seconds between bursts

* i cannot detect any muzzle flashes from the Paddock hotel room (or anywhere 
else) from the videos i examined, particularly from witness [001] which includes 
some fairly steady footage of the Mandalay Bay during a rapid fire sequence - i 
adjusted the brightness, contrast and color saturation of the video to a large 
degree and could not observe flashes - although many of the videos are not of 
the highest quality, i still find this odd - the shooter certainly was not using 
a silencer and i tend to doubt that a flash suppressor alone would mask the 
muzzle flashes

* although Paddock apparently had 20+ guns in his room, it is unusual for any of 
the gunshot sequences to differ in amplitude and tone within the same witness 
recordings and often they differ little between different witness recordings - 
the bump-stock type repetitive fire variations are present in every video - this 
begs the question as to whether Paddock, the alleged shooter, ever used more 
than one type/caliber of weapon and, if he did not, then why bring 20+ guns 
which is an utterly absurd number

Ballistic calculation resources

Atmospheric conditions in Las Vegas, October 1st, 2017:

Las Vegas weather 1-Oct-2017
Las Vegas weather 1-Oct-2017

A 20 degree angle was used for ballistics calculations based on a rough estimate using Google Maps:

Mandalay Bay Shooter Angle (estimated)
Mandalay Bay shooter angle (estimated)

The cartridge used for ballistics calculations was a .223 Remington, metal case, 55 gr. cartridge. This caliber is based on the multiple AR-15 weapons found by police in room 32-135, most of which were equipped with bump-stock devices. The type and weight of the bullet is estimated. Here is the ballistics table for that cartridge:

.223 Remington Metal Case 55gr Ballistics Table
.223 Remington Metal Case 55gr Ballistics Table

This is the chart i used to calculate bullet time to distance, corrected for atmospheric conditions and shooter angle:

Bullet time to distance - .223 Remington Metal Case, 55 gr.
Bullet time to distance for a .223 Remington, metal case, 55 gr. cartridge

How calculations were preformed


* ballistic calculations were preformed using the Ballistic Calculator tool from [4]
* distances from projectile impacts to muzzle reports are calculated from 
witness recordings close to the concert where projectile impacts are recorded 
before the audible muzzle report - from this data the estimated distance to the 
shooter is derived and, given enough data from multiple witnesses, shooter 
position can be derived
* cartridge (assumed): .223 Remington, Remington Metal Case, 55gr (used for 
ballistic calculations)
    - ballistic coefficient: 0.202
    - initial velocity: 3240 ft/s
    - bullet weight: 55 gr.
    - zero range: 100 yds.
    - shooting angle: 20 deg.
    - sight height: 1.5"
    - wind velocity: 0
    - wind angle: 0
    - drag function: G1 | Ingalls
    - air temp: 80 F
    - altitude: 2030 ft.
    - atmospheric pressure: 29.53
    - relative humidity: 24%
* Las Vegas temperature, 1-Oct-2017, 10p: 80 deg. F (used for ballistic 
calculations and speed of sound) [1]
* Las Vegas relative humidity, Oct: 24% (used for ballistic calculations) [3]
* speed of sound @ 80 deg. F: 1138.52 ft/s [2]
* map radius's surrounding each witness location as plotted on the map are 
calculated using the projectile impact to muzzle report delay figures - added to 
the distance is the difference between the witness location and the target area 
(rough center of open area in front of stage) to create the corrected distances 
which are then used to calculate the radius around the witness - the corrected 
distance was measured on Google Maps using the built-in measuring tool

sound time to distance
feet    ms
1800    1581
1650    1449
1500    1317
1350    1186
1200    1054
1050     922
 900     790
 750     659
 600     527
 450     395
 300     263
 150     132

projectile time to distance
feet    ms
1800    928
1650    809
1500    700
1350    600
1200    509
1050    426
 900    350
 750    280
 600    215
 450    155
 300    100
 150     48


Software used


os: GNU/Linux Mint

    Waterfox (web browser)
        Scrapbook X (extension to save and organize web content)
    Audacity (audio editor)
    GIMP (image editor)
    Kate (text/code editor)
    youtube-dl (download video, extract audio)
    KSnapshot (screen capture)
    VLC (media player)

Data derived from witness recordings

Witness [001] analysis

witness [001]

scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter 
distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations

video source:

* approx. distance to Mandalay shooter window: 1,146'
* approx. distance to center of concert area: 94'

* the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles:
    1000 + 1075 + 925 + 1000 + 840 + 930 / 6 = 961.67'

audio sample (h:m:s)    impact (h:m:s)  report (h:m:s)  delay (s)   distance (ft)
00:00:00-00:00:10 [1]
00:00:46-00:00:57       00:00:46.14     00:00:46.54     0.4         1000
00:00:46-00:00:57       00:00:55.86     00:00:56.3      0.44        1075
00:01:13-00:01:15       00:01:14.69     00:01:15.05     0.36         925
00:01:15-00:01:24       00:01:15.45     00:01:15.85     0.4         1000
00:01:42-00:01:53       00:01:43.12     00:01:43.44     0.32         840
00:01:42-00:01:53       00:01:51.55     00:01:51.91     0.36         930

[1] unable to obtain a good impact/report sample

Witness [003] analysis

witness [003]

scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter 
distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations

reference video: A personal story on Vegas Concert
video source: (deleted)
witness name: Lisa Fine

* approx. distance to Mandalay shooter window: 1,186'
* approx. distance to center of concert area: 85'

* the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles:
    1040 + 1025 / 2 = 1032.5'

* it is assumed that some of the firing sequences in this sound track consist of 
bullet impacts followed by muzzle reports for the following reasons: 1) the 
shear sharpness of the higher frequency sounds preceding the lower amplitude and 
lower frequency sounds, 2) the 00:00:14-00:00:16, 00:02:37-00:02:44 and 
00:02:44-00:02:47 samples where apparently bullets can be heard striking objects 
in the vicinity of the witness, possibly glass in the 00:00:14-00:00:16 sample 
and metal in the 00:02:37-00:02:44 and 00:02:44-00:02:47 samples, and 3), 
because of the witness location which is much closer to the concert than to 
Mandalay Bay which would account for bullet impacts being recorded before muzzle 
* at 00:02:43.27, 00:02:45.9 and 00:02:46.3 there are bullet impacts that sound 
like they are extremely close to the witness - one of the latter two impacts, 
and i don't know which, may possibly be seen in image file 
"003-bullet-impact.png" - this could just be an anomaly in the video since this 
small bright area on the pole in front of the witness appears for only a single 
frame, however it does correspond with the spike in the audio that sounds like a 
bullet striking a metallic object

audio sample (h:m:s)    impact (h:m:s)  report (h:m:s)  delay (s)   distance (ft)
00:00:15-00:00:16 [1,2]
00:00:16-00:00:18 [1]
00:00:22-00:00:24       00:00:22.36     00:00:22.78     0.42        1040
00:01:26-00:01:29       00:01:27.72     00:01:28.13     0.41        1025
00:01:31-00:01:41 [1]
00:02:01-00:02:11 [1]
00:02:35-end      [1]

[1] unable to obtain a good impact/report sample
[2] breaking glass at 00:15:35-00:15:42

Witness [004] analysis

witness [004]

scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter 
distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations

reference video: Las Vegas Shooting (FIRST SHOTS)  _RARE
video source:

* approx. distance to center of concert area: 156', 1,578'
* approx. distance to Paddock hotel room: 1,355', 2,033'

* the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles:
    1125 + 1110 / 2 = 1117.5'
* corrected distance is derived from the difference in feet from the witness 
location to the approximate center of the concert area in front of the stage 
where bullets impacted - this corrected difference is then added to the distance 
figures below
* from ~00:02:00 on, the witness is moving almost constantly and further away 
from the Mandalay Bay hotel, then moves slightly closer to it in the last few 

audio sample (h:m:s)    impact (h:m:s)  report (h:m:s)  delay (s)   distance (ft)
00:03:12-00:03:14 [2]
00:03:17-00:03:18       00:03:17.13     00:03:17.6      0.47        1125
00:03:19-00:03:21       00:03:19.65     00:03:20.11     0.46        1110
00:03:51-00:04:01 [2,6]
00:04:39-00:04:49 [2]
00:05:06-00:05:16 [2]
00:05:35-00:05:44 [2,3]
00:07:00-00:07:01 [2,4]
00:07:08-00:07:09 [2]
00:07:33-00:07:34 [1,2]
00:07:35-00:07:36 [1,2]
00:08:45-00:08:47 [1,2]
00:08:49-00:08:57 [1,2]
00:09:55-00:10:02 [1,2]
00:10:21-00:10:22 [1,2]
00:10:22-00:10:24 [5,2]
00:11:17-00:11:26 [1,2]
00:12:35-00:12:38 [1,2]
00:12:40-00:12:44 [2]
00:13:02-00:13:07 [2]

[1] possible rapid fire, very low amplitude
[2] unable to obtain a good impact/report sample
[3] no impacts detected
[4] possible impact or report, possible small-arms fire
[5] although the 00:10:22-00:10:24 sample closely follows the 00:10:21-00:10:22 
sample, the tone is noticeably different
[6] at approx. 00:03:53 in the video, there is a man in a white shirt on the 
left side of the frame that seems to drop to the ground as though he was shot in 
the head

Witness [005] analysis

witness [005]

scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter 
distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations

video source: (deleted from YouTube) alternate video source:

* approx. distance to Mandalay shooter window: 1,081'
* approx. distance to center of concert area: 112'

* the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles:
    1110 + 1025 + 975 + 820 + 875 / 5 = 961

audio sample (h:m:s)    impact (h:m:s)  report (h:m:s)  delay (s)   distance (ft)
00:00:13-00:00:16       00:00:15.18     00:00:15.64     0.46        1110
00:00:18-00:00:28       00:00:18.28     00:00:18.69     0.41        1025
00:00:49-00:00:59 [1]
00:01:23-00:01:31       00:01:27.16     00:01:27.55     0.39        975
00:01:31-00:01:35 [1]
00:01:49-00:01:58 [2]   00:01:57.55     00:01:57.87     0.32        820
00:01:58-00:02:01 [3]   00:01:58.3      00:01:58.64     0.34        875

[1] unable to obtain a good impact/report sample
[2] sequence begins with a high amplitude, low frequency burst of about 8 shots 
which sound like muzzle reports, however the amplitude and frequency of the 
sounds is significantly different than the other muzzle reports in this video
[3] distance estimate appears to be wildly incorrect, especially given that the 
amplitude and frequency of the muzzle reports is similar to other samples in 
this video

Witness [006] analysis

witness [006]

scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter 
distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations

reference video: Video Las Vegas shooting during concert WARNING Disturbing 
video source:

* approx. distance to Mandalay shooter window: 1,220'
* approx. distance to center of concert area: 125'

* the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles:

audio sample (h:m:s)    impact (h:m:s)  report (h:m:s)  delay (s)   distance (ft)
00:00:00-00:00:03 [1]
00:00:38-00:00:50 [1]
00:01:06-00:01:17       00:01:06.37     00:01:06.8      0.43        1060
00:01:36-00:01:45 [1]
00:02:36-00:02:37 [1]
00:03:41-00:03:43 [1]

[1] unable to obtain a good impact/report sample

Post analysis updates

25-Jul-2022: On or around 13-Jan-2022, Mindy Robinson, an activist and self-proclaimed investigative journalist, released a feature documentary, Route 91: Uncovering the Cover Up of The Vegas Mass Shooting, in which she attempts to make a case for multiple shooters in multiple locations that night, including multiple shooters targeting people at the concert venue.

While some of the evidence in the documentary is compelling, much of it is very weak or factually incorrect. Other evidence is largely devoid of credibility, such as shots being fired from helicopters and bullet trajectories that indicate some victims were shot by someone on the ground. To make the latter case, Robinson shows us what is apparently a forensic diagram of a head with the bullet path being parallel to the ground which of course proves absolutely nothing since the victim could have been looking up in the direction of Mandalay Bay when they were shot. In another instance Robinson tells us four victims were shot from a very high angle which, contrary to her insinuation of being shot from a helicopter, could simply mean that these victims were looking down or were bent over, perhaps taking cover or helping a victim, when they were shot. Robinson spends substantial time analyzing flight path data of aircraft operating in the vicinity of Mandalay Bay in order to support her untenable theory that shots were fired from possibly multiple helicopters.

Robinson also insinuates that it was not possible for Paddock to target people in the venue without a scoped rifle, of which there was only one Paddock's arsenal (i believe he used this one to target the airport fuel tanks). She seems to insinuate that Paddock was targeting individuals rather than the crowd in general which is absurd. Paddock (assuming he was actually the shooter) was not targeting individuals, he was targeting a large, densely packed crowd from approximately 450 yards away. There was no need to use a scope at that range on a crowd of that size in order to be assured of hitting people with what was essentially an automatic weapon.

Robinson further insinuates that it was not possible for Paddock to have used a bump-stock device since they are unreliable. She then shows us a single video which she uses as evidence to support her claim in which it appears the shooter had no previous experience with a bump-stock device. There is also no indication that the bump-stock device used for the demonstration was the same as that used by Paddock. Robinson seems to have cherry-picked this video and ignored videos such as How does a bump stock work? from ABC News which is the first one i found when searching for "bump-stock demonstration video". Finally, the fact that a bump-stock was used is positively clear when listening to the many witness videos and looking at audio waveforms.

In between all of this nonsense, half-truths and wild speculation, of which i've referenced only a small portion, Robinson does bring forth evidence about the discovery of empty bullet casings found on the ground in the venue area and elsewhere, however it's only the venue area that is of interest to me, and this presents a problem because, assuming those shells were fired during the time Paddock was firing and not just deposited there by someone for some unknown reason, it contradicts my own findings which conclude that there is no solid evidence of any gun fire originating in the venue area at any time according to any of the witness recording i analyzed (i should note that i analyzed many more videos than those referenced throughout this article).

The documentary features an audio analysis of waveforms which Robinson tells us was done by an unnamed sound editor with 20+ years experience and which proves that multiple gunmen were targeting the venue. The person doing the analysis is using a single audio track with no accompanying video captured from a single law enforcement officers body camera. The sound guy tells us that the officer never changed locations and only moved a few feet during the recording. He concludes to a high degree of certainty that overlapping gunfire can be heard in this recording. There are several problems with this conclusion:

  1. We have to assume the source and description of the video is accurate.
  2. Without video, we cannot be sure the officer (the recording device) didn't turn to face a different direction, or that they interfered with the recording such as by positioning his/her hand or arm in front of the microphone, or that someone else didn't move between the microphone and the sound source, any of which could have changed the audio sound and waveform drastically. The person doing the analysis does provide an important detail when he states that the officer moved a few feet during the two firing sequences and this alone could have affected what is heard in the audio and seen in the waveforms. In the second firing sequence he alludes to overlapping gunfire ("you can hear the guns in the background; you can hear the primary in the background") however the audio sample of the second firing sequence is poor. While this could be evidence of a second shooter, it could also be that something changed with how the sound was being recorded due to the officer moving, others moving, the gunman changing his aim, etc.. Lastly, only one audio analysis was performed whereas i analyzed many media recordings using timings, math and ballistics and i have no doubt that my methods present far stronger evidence.
  3. As an alleged audio editor, possibly with no ballistics experience, this person does not seem to have considered bullet shock waves or timings in his analysis.

I immediately contacted Robinson after watching her documentary (i saw it right after it was released, i'm just late writing about it) with the intention of working together to figure out how our investigations could lead to opposite conclusions, however she soon became confrontational and refused to even consider the evidence brought forth here, thus any collaboration with her was impossible. She claims to be an investigative journalist, but i have to wonder what kind of investigative journalist refuses to consider evidence, much less forensic evidence, that challenges their current beliefs.

Article resources

Following is a partial list of resources used to write this article.

Police reports

Misc. resources

Change log

Click to expand...


  • initial publication


  • added information about possible foreknowledge of the shooting
  • added information regarding the 'Stephanie' interview
  • misc. minor edits and typo corrections


  • minor corrections to witness [001] data
  • minor correction to witness [001] circle on map
  • removed the 'personal observations that are beyond the scope of this work' section in the 'general observations' file and incorporated it in the main body of this document


  • added info about the MGM stock sale
  • updated and edited other content


  • edited and clarified information regarding the gap between the converging circles around the witnesses and the Mandalay Bay hotel


  • major corrections to all of the witness data, however the results remain essentially the same
  • removed witness data that either was not relevant to my analysis, or where the witnesses were too far away from the festival to provide accurate data
  • uploaded new image files for most of this document and added a couple more


  • corrected some text in all of the witness analysis files (this has no effect upon the data)
  • added data for a new witness, [001], to replace the old data for the old [001] witness whose data was not usable
  • minor edits


  • polishing


  • fixed a broken link
  • added more info regarding FAA requirements for flying aircraft at night


  • edited video link for 'Stephanie' interview since YouTube deleted the original as part of their censorship campaign
  • typo correction


  • minor edits, polishing


  • added more info about the James Murren stock dump
  • added info about George Soros betting against MGM stock


  • added more info regarding the stock trades prior to the shooting
  • minor edits


  • mostly minor updates to content as per information released in the LVMPD Preliminary Investigative Report - 1 October / Mass Casulaty Shooting report dated 18-Jan-2018
  • expanded upon the use of diazepam by Paddock given info in the police report and other sources
  • added a 'Resources' section which lists some of the resources used to write this article
  • misc. minor edits


  • rewrote and rearranged a lot of content to make it more clear
  • expanded on the role diazepam may have played in the shooting
  • expanded on my personal observations
  • expanded on the 'evidence' section
  • misc. other edits


  • shuffled around and clarified some content
  • added a couple new resources
  • removed the entire section related to what i thought was an anomaly with the stairwell door - i since discovered there are two stairwell doors and i did not know this - sloppy work on my part
  • expanded a bit more on the role diazepam may have played in this shoting
  • polishing


  • re-titled and moved some things around
  • cleaned up formatting on the witness analysis data files


  • added a couple more resources with regard to diazepam
  • added a bit more info about diazepam


  • corrected some information regarding diazepam


  • added more info regarding Paddock's autopsy


  • added the video, Psychiatric Drugs Are More Dangerous than You Ever Imagined




  • added video, Reality Check: Mass Shootings & Psychiatric Drugs


  • added recently released MGM security cam video of Paddock's movements
  • minor edits


  • added missing resources
  • added link to article, Mental Health Watchdog Releases New Report on Link Between Psychotropic Drugs & School/Mass Shootings
  • minor edits


  • added missing data for witness [001]
  • polishing and fixing typos


  • updated resources section


  • added video 'The REAL Winners of V-e-G-a-$ MSM Doesn't Wanna Talk About!!'
  • minor edits
  • updated resources section


  • updated link to deleted YouTube video about Soros trading in MGM stock
  • added info about Jake Morphonios


  • updated broken link to Stephanie interview
  • minor edits


  • added resource article, 'Criminal Masterminds'


  • added link to final LVMPD police report
  • deleted the entire section regarding my theory that the 134-135 adjoining door may not have been subjected to an explosive breech as claimed by police - my reason for removing this is that, like any hotel room adjoining doors i have seen, there are two of them, each of which opens into the associated room, thus i think the image i had included only showed one of the doors - furthermore, it can be seen in the final LVMPD/FIT police report that the room 134 door was blown off its hinge and was lying on the floor of room 134
  • misc. minor edits and corrections


  • minor edit


  • fixed a couple broken links (YouTube censorship)


  • due to a reader comment, i realized that i may have been interpreting the supersonic sound waves of bullets as bullet impacts, thus i have corrected this in the article, however this error should not make any difference in my calculations since both the supersonic shock wave and bullet impact sounds would have reached the witnesses at the same time almost exactly - this is because the supersonic sound of a projectile emanates from the projectile and not the gun, thus the generation of the supersonic crack would have ended at the same time the bullet impacted an object
  • minor additions/corrections


  • minor corrections and edits


  • added a link to the video 'Flaw in the Matrix - Las Vegas Shooting' which includes an interview with Shawn Hendricks
  • minor edits


  • replaced videos removed by YouTube
  • several minor edits, mainly to clarify certain points


  • correction to the 'Looking at the sounds' section


  • added the 'Post analysis updates' section and an update regarding Mindy Robinson's documentary
  • fixed some broken video links

Rescuing Israel: The Holocaust - Misc. Resources

Resources for further study of Zionism, World War II war crimes, historical revisionism and miscellaneous resources.

Israeli/Zionist/Jewish political influence

Jewish social and cultural influence

Jewish/Israeli human organ trafficking

Jewish/Israeli/Mossad human trafficking, sex crimes, abuse

False-flag Jewish hate crimes

Israel and 9/11

Jewish/Israeli/Mossad spying, terrorism and criminal activities, misc.

Jewish role in the Atlantic slave trade

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Jewish Anti-Zionist organizations

Jewish history

Miscellaneous resources and recent events

The Day Israel Attacked America

Documentary by Al Jazeera America telling the story of the Israeli attack upon the USS Liberty.

This documentary by Al Jazeera America, uploaded to YouTube in Oct., 2014, tells the story of the Israeli attack upon the USS Liberty. The unprovoked attack by Israel, the closest "ally" of the United States, killed or wounded approximately two-thirds of the crew and nearly sunk the ship, which was later scrapped as a result of the severe damage it had sustained.

The USS Liberty was a U.S. communications interception ship (spy ship) that was attacked on 8-Jun-1967 by the Israeli air force and navy in international waters off the coast of Egypt during the 6 Day War between Israel and Egypt. Machine guns, rockets, napalm and torpedoes were all brought to bare during the attack. Apparently not satisfied with the nearly complete destruction of the ship, the Israelis also machine-gun the life boats to prevent the sailors from escaping the fate that Israel had planned for them.

Researchers have known for a long time that there was no question that the attack by Israel was deliberate, however it seems that the motive may not have been clear. My brief research into the incident indicated that the motive was to blame the attack on Egypt, a classic false-flag operation, and thus prompt the U.S. to provide military support to the Jewish state. The film implies a very different hypothesis however. My years of research have resulted in two very concrete conclusions regarding Israel however: 1) Israel has been, and continues to be, a prolific purveyor of terrorism and 2), Israel and Zionism are perhaps the greatest threats to the United States.

The Day Israel Attacked America (2014) | Al Jazeera

Alternate links: UGETube, BitChute

Adolf Hitler: The Greatest Story Never Told - An interview with the filmmaker

Transcript of an interview with Dennis Wise, a filmmaker from the U.K. who made the ground-breaking documentary: Adolf Hitler: The Greatest Story Never Told.

Dennis Wise is a filmmaker from the U.K. who has really stirred up the pot with a ground-breaking documentary titled Adolf Hitler: The Greatest Story Never Told. I found his film during my research for my article, Rescuing Israel: The Holocaust.

The 27 part documentary film, nearly 6 1/2 hours in length, provides the viewer with a rich visual and oral history of Germany's role in World War II with a central focus on the man who many mistakenly believe was one of the most evil to have ever lived, Adolf Hitler. The reality is much different of course and Dennis has done a fantastic job at exposing truths that the mainstream media continues to avoid at all cost.

Following is a short interview i conducted with Dennis by email in 2013:

12bytes: Obviously anyone who has the audacity to question the historical record regarding Germany's involvement in World War II, particularly the Jewish holocaust aspect, is opening themselves up to attack by a variety of pro-Jewish organizations and, in some countries, is subject to be thrown in jail. For the record, do you see yourself as being anti-Semitic or racist and why do you think such labels are so readily applied?

Dennis: I am neither a racist nor anti-Semitic. Some will find it hard to believe simply because they have been fed lies and misinformation about the 3rd Reich and Adolf Hitler. There were many non-whites of different cultures and creed who fought for Germany in WW2, even Jews, and they were not segregated like the black Americans in the US army. This was a truly racist US government which used the likes of Jesse Owen in their propaganda against the 3rd Reich.

The labels are readily used because of the deceitful but highly successful campaign directed at the public since 1945. Children of each generation (just as their parents) are taught in school and then later they hear it propped up in the media and Hollywood. Without themselves researching, they will never know the real Adolf Hitler.

12bytes: From an interview you did with Deanna Spingola of RCN Radio, i gathered that your journey began when you were about 12 when you asked your father why Hitler "killed all those Jews". Of course the culmination would come many years later with the making of the film. Although you gave some detail as to what transpired during that gap, could you perhaps provide a bit more? Specifically i'm interested in any notable revelations or milestones along the way, be they in the form of personal experiences, books, film, etc., and what role the world wide web played in your research.

Dennis: What I learned from my father about Adolf Hitler completely changed my way of thinking. They call it today "thinking outside the box." I became aware of the bias in comics about the evil "Nazis" and in school I always had to stay silent on the subject of the holocaust. I had also become aware of the shock and horror on the faces of my friends just hearing the name Adolf Hitler. As a teenager I would get bored watching war movies as the script was always the same and even today rarely give the modern ones a second glance the propaganda is so bad.

I found I was able to read between the headlines for instance, when Britain would go to war in some far off place. I lost count of the times I rolled my eyes when I heard Tony Blair say, "We must help the Iraqi people." He and Bush don't care much for them now do they?

Simply, without the internet it would have been impossible to even attempt the documentary.

12bytes: Personally i am very interested in current geo-political events and the positive alterations the activist movements of the day are having upon our roller coaster ride to hell. Why is the true history of nearly a century ago relevant today, other than from a purely historical point of view?

Dennis: Because if you understand the documentary you will see the same is happening today. The age old tactic of blacken the leader and invade as the good guys has always worked until Syria. A lot of people can now associate with Iraq, Libya and Syria but they still can't see the link with National Socialist Germany. David Ike and Alex Jones try to convince us that the Nazis are behind the New World Order. Something just too ridiculous for words.

12bytes: It is my understanding that the Reichstag fire may have been a false-flag event orchestrated by key Nazi officials to gain public support for the invasion of Poland and that Kristallnacht may have been orchestrated by the Jews (it obviously wouldn't be the first time they attacked themselves and blamed it on others). The film seems to dispute both theories and i'm just wondering how you came to your conclusions?

Dennis: There is no evidence to suggest that the National Socialists themselves set fire to the Reichstag only allied speculation. Following the fire certain measures or restrictions were put into practice but that is not proof. It would be just as easy to make a case for a communist plot. The National Socialists finally gained power after years of struggle. When Hitler first joined the NSDAP with not much more than a roomful of members, there were 6 million Communists in Germany who saw Hitler as a joke. Once he gained power, there were plenty capable of burning down the Reichstag out of hatred, frustration and anger.

12bytes: My research strongly indicates that there was no policy, written or otherwise, regarding the alleged mass extermination of the Jews and that there were no homicidal gas chambers in any of the camps. What i have not yet researched was whether there were a significant number of illegal killings of Jews by other means and, if so, to what extent. Do you have any knowledge in this area?

Dennis: I think in any war there are atrocities on both sides. War is horrible and brutal. Emotions run high when family and friends are being killed and revenge is part of human make up. To say one side only committed atrocities and the other side didn't is being naïve. I have no doubt some Jews may have been killed illegally just like I have no doubts that many Germans were also.

12bytes: Much like the rest of us, i see the majority of the Jewish people as being victims of a historical fantasy (holocaust) that is continually leveraged to drastically alter government policy on a global scale, to the detriment of all mankind. What are your thoughts on this?

Dennis: Yes, in keep pushing the Holocaust as they do it helps them in being portrayed as victims. When today they are actually the most powerful and aggressive country in the region.

12bytes: My awakening began in earnest about 15 years ago when i began studying what i call the "child torture for fun and profit industry" which is about highly abusive behavioral modification programs for troubled teens (just search for "WWASPS" and "Robert Lichfield"). Then 9/11 occurred and my investigation into that event led everywhere else, literally. I soon realized that everything i thought i knew was stripped from me, leaving an uncomfortable void that took a lot of research to re-fill with the truth. What has your "trip" been like and what subjects other than World War II interest you?

Dennis: Yes the Kennedy assassination and 9/11 shows us just how governments can cover up without too much trouble. Some of the government line on 9/11 is pure fantasy world and yet millions still believe them. My favorite is that in all the plane crashes never before in all of history has the black box not been found, whether at the bottom of an ocean or high up in the mountains.

According to the US government not one of the black boxes from the supposedly four planes had been found. Now what are the odds on that?

12bytes: From both a positive and negative perspective, what feedback has the film generated? Has it met your expectations thus far?

Dennis: The film has had a really positive reaction and I have been informed by viewers as even life changing on how they view the world today. The film was set out to show a more balanced and truthful account of World war Two. So yes it has passed all expectations.

12bytes: What message might you have for the white supremacists/neo-Nazis/Skinheads of the world?

Dennis: That their view of Hitler is wrong. The Hitler they admire never existed. He would never have been a member of the Klu Klux Klan.

12bytes: Now that your famous, what's next?

Dennis: I am not sure but World War Two does fascinate me. The series has taken a huge amount of my time, so I will probably take a break before deciding.

Exposed: Alex 'Bullhorn' Jones

Is Alex Jones the truth-seeking patriot he claims to be, or is there another force behind the bullhorn wielding darling of the alternative media?

Is Alex Jones really the truth seeking patriot he claims to be, or is there a hidden agenda driving the bullhorn wielding darling of the alternative media?

The CIA Background And Assets In Alex Jones Family? Look...

Alex Jones CIA connections (1 of 2)

Alex Jones CIA connections (2 of 2)

Similar to NPR, Alex Jones enjoys a prominent position in the alternative media scene. From Wikipedia:

The Alex Jones Show syndicated radio program is broadcast nationally by Genesis Communications Network to more than 70 AM and FM radio stations in the United States, and to WWCR Radio shortwave. Live-broadcast times are weekdays 11:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. CST and Sundays from 4:00 to 6:00 p.m. CST. The Sunday broadcast is also broadcast by Emmis Communications' KLBJ Radio.

As of 2010, he was estimated to have an audience of over 2 million listeners, with a demographic heavier in younger viewers than other conservative pundits.[24] In 2011, he had a larger on-line audience than Glenn Beck and Rush Limbaugh combined.[41] Author Will Bunch says that Jones was in part a model for Glenn Beck who "synthesized" some of the paranoia of Jones's commentaries into his persona.[24]

Jones is also the operator of several web sites centered on news and information about civil liberties issues, global government, and a wide variety of current events topics. Several of these sites are,,, and

Having briefly been a fan of Alex Jones early in my investigation into the terrorist attacks upon the United States on September 11, 2001, i have since become disillusioned by his incessant fear-mongering, gross exaggerations and failed predictions. What has come to bother me most however is his constant referrals to Adolf Hitler, the Nazis and Germany's role in World War II, subjects of which he either knows virtually nothing about or which he is purposely falsifying, and i strongly suspect it is the latter. His remarks and catch phrases regarding Hitler and the holocaust can be heard in many of his broadcasts.

It seems decidedly odd to me that an investigative journalist, as he labels himself, could be so utterly ignorant of the facts regarding Germany's role in the Second World War. One of the several false claims that Jones likes to repeat is that the Nazis added fluoride to the public water supplies in order to dumb-down the masses. Another is that Hitler disarmed the German people in order to facilitate his rise to power. The fluoride claim appears to be factually incorrect and the disarming of the German populace is provably and grossly inaccurate.

It seems all but impossible that Jones could have failed to take notice of the wealth of information regarding Germany's role in the war and it therefore stands to reason that, if he is aware of the truth, then he must be purposely falsifying and distorting it. The question is, why?

There is obviously a criminal element of Jewry that has been at work for a very long time in the west, especially in the United States, and Alex Jones consistently goes out of his way to avoid the subject and deflect criticism from the Zionist mafia exactly as does the mainstream media. Extreme over-representation of Jews in virtually all of the important institutions in the United States and elsewhere, as well as Zionist philosophies, can be found throughout the government, media, education and finance sectors, yet Alex rarely speaks in-depth about the political influence exerted by these criminals. If he is the patriotic American he claims to be, then why does he largely omit a well established and crucial element of corruption from his programming, one which is key to understanding the problems we face today?

As it turns out, we need not question Jones' allegiance as he was kind enough to provide the answer for us in several videos and, as many have long suspected, that allegiance is to the racist state of Israel.

The Alex Jones Show, January 2, 2017. His rant starts at 1:15:00:

An earlier video of Alex Jones proudly touting his support for Zionist Israel:

More recently, Alex demonstrated his support of Israel in this clip:

I think that for many, including myself, listening to the content that Alex Jones broadcast was enlightening and empowering in ways, sort of like attending a 'Geopolitics 101' class. Thankfully many of us have long since graduated and now see Jones for what he really is; a liar and a bullshit artist whose propaganda is a stumbling block to anyone seeking the real truth.

Resources for further study:

Ultimate Jonestown woodshed | Ryan Dawson

Alex Jones Wants Your Money, Beware

Alex Jones CAUGHT LYING About Epstein Network

Jones used to tell his audience that it was Arabs running Hollywood, however it's now the "chi-coms", referring to the Chinese. His swapping of the Arabs for the Chinese is another indication that Jones is being handled by outside forces. Jones also tells us that the "chi-coms" are the key players the Jeffery Epstein network which of course is patently false.

Hysterical Alex Jones Weeps & Prays For Bibi: "Globalists Clearly Trying To Overthrow Israel" & Arrest Netanyahu. 'All You That Hate Jews' Get Ready for Islamic Rule in the U.S.

On his Monday January 2 show, Infowars Alex Jones went on an absolutely hysterical rant, weeping, praying for Bibi Netanyahu, saying that the 'globalists' want to destroy Israel, which will launch Armageddon, ...

Alex Jones, Robert Spencer, Paul Joseph Watson, and Pamella Geller Are All Zionist Whores

If you are an Alex Jones fan, be smart. Use your critical thinking skills. If you have been pouring money on his show business, think again. Psycho-analyze Jones thoroughly. He is certainly laughing all the way to the bank.

Jones wants your money, which is his "precious." And to get that money, he will always mix a little bit of truth in a river of fabrication, strong enough to distract you from focusing on the main issue.

Michael Collins Piper Debunks Alex Jones and Jordan Maxwell: Teutonic Zionism

Alex Jones answers the Zionist question

David Duke Exposes Alex Jones while exposing the global Zionist takeover

Infowars Callers Angry at Alex Jones for Zionist Propaganda

Alex Jones Y2K Broadcast, Dec.31 ,1999

Alex Jones Is ‘No Better Than ISIS’: How The Infowars Host Spreads Fear For Profit

Disseminating misinformation about Muslims is the controversial talk show host’s latest attempt at nurturing a climate of fear that earns big money for Jones and his advertisers.

Alex Jones Exposed by Milton William Cooper

Infowars Employees Expose Alex Jones

Alex Jones Crashes Austin Pro Gun Rally, Then Lies About It On His Show

26 Alex Jones LIES Debunked


10 Reasons Why Radio Host Alex Jones Is The Most Dangerous Man In America

On February 12, 2012, news broke that Alex Jones was likely an intelligence tool of STRATFOR, a Zionist intelligence agency located in Austin, Texas. On February 15, 2012, just 3 days after the original article was published, Jones abruptly canceled his nationwide speaking tour which he had been promoting since February 2, 2012.

Jones stated that his sudden change in plans was due to the fact that "the collapse is so imminent". Obviously, Jones has been made as a traitorous spy and is running scared. Revelation of Jones' ties to Israeli intelligence should come as no surprise since Jones has not and will not reveal the true Zionist control of America.

Is Alex Jones A Zionist Shill?... Controversy Swirls

ABOUT SEVEN WEEKS AFTER EXPOSING JONES AS A LIAR AND A FRAUD on his highly-regarded national patriot radio show (Watch & Listen HERE), William Cooper (author of the alternative news best-seller - 'Behold A Pale Horse' - was shot to death at his home in Eager, Arizona on November 5, 2001.

Indeed, the renowned author, historian, and political theorist, Cooper exposed Jones clearly as a fraud and was, according to many, assassinated to shut him up a few weeks LATER.

Is Alex Jones Linked To Zionist-Jew Bronfman?

THE CONTROVERSY OF ALEX 'BULLHORN' JONES being an alleged Zionist shill has now expanded to his apparent Zionist-Jewish connections on his 1) Personal Staff 2) Website Advertisers 3) Link To Time Warner President, Edgar Bronfman Jr.

Jones' seeming allegiance to Zionism, which explains why he virtually never targets Zionist Jews or the racist, Zionist rogue state of Israel when engaging in his notorious rants and attacks, may well stem from a Protestant-Zionist belief system, and the widely circulated reports that his wife is a Jew - - which makes his two children Jewish under Talmudic law and eligible for the Israeli Law Of Return. In that Jones' wife is of Jewish heritage, both she and the children would be automatic dual citizens...Alex would not qualify.

Dr. Strangelove: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Alex Jones and Paul Joseph Watson

If people haven’t yet been convinced that [Jones] is an outright shill and operative for the Jewish money power in this world, then I am not sure what will… he is not a legitimate patriot fighting against the New World Order but a Zionist shill.

The Alex Jones Machine - Round Two

These pages will show...

  • Alex and Kelly Jones' documented connections to Bronfman, power lawyer Elizabeth Schurig...who just happens to be Alex Jones personal attorney.

  • Free Speech Systems and other Jones companies have the same elite zionist corporate address as does Bronfman attorney Schurig.

  • Jeff Rense was forced off GCN because he dared post a LINK on his news site to another site with a legitimate journalist's story questioning Jones' true motives and apparent zionist agenda.

  • Interesting examples of speech reversals taken from theJones own statement about Rense.

  • Ted Anderson's betrayal of the so-called 'GCN mission' by caving to Jones' demands.

  • Anderson supports Clear Channel by frequently buying ads for his Midas gold company on it. People send Midas Resources checks for silver and gold...Ted sends checks to Clear Channel.

Terror Attack That Alex Jones Blamed on Muslims, Revealed to Be Inspired by Frequent Guest on His Show

The driver of the van, Darren Osborne, is now on trial. Proceedings have indicated that Osborne was radicalized in a matter of weeks as he became obsessed with the commentary of Tommy Robinson, a former leader of the violent anti-Muslim hate group English Defence League, Rebel Media employee, and frequent guest of Alex Jones.

Alex Jones Before Selling Out : Johnny Gat