- 1 Introduction
- 2 How evidence was processed
- 3 The result
- 4 Personal observations
- 5 The data
- 6 Article resources
- 7 Change log
See the change log at the end of this document for a complete revision history.
First and foremost, my heart goes out to everyone affected by this unfortunate tragedy.
If you were one of the many people that were present at the Route 91 Harvest Festival in Las Vegas on on the night of October 1st, 2017, then know that this work is dedicated to you. Unlike a few others who are capitalizing on this event, i am not seeking any monetary gain for my work. I decided to make this effort because it bothers me deeply that so many of the witnesses and the public at large are being given answers that, in my opinion, are sometimes deeply flawed and therefore i’d like to make an attempt to provide some evidence-based answers that are hopefully more accurate than some of the garbage floating around on the web.
Anyone who has researched the Route 91 Harvest Festival mass-shooting is likely to have heard several claims from many witnesses who have stated, to varying degrees of certainty, that multiple gunmen were acting in concert with, or in place of the primary suspect, Stephen Craig Paddock, and it is this facet of this shooting which i choose to investigate and which will be the primary focus of this article. The scope of the acoustic analysis i preformed was purposely limited as to determining whether or not more than one gunman targeted the Route 91 Harvest Festival venue specifically, as well as to determine the approximate location of the shooter or shooters.
Let me be clear about how the term “multiple gunmen” is used here. As many others, i have also come across many reports of multiple shooting incidents at various locations in Las Vegas on the day in question, including at the Bellagio, Caesars Palace, Planet Hollywood, the Tropicana, Hooters and others. While many of us are well aware of how dishonest and corrupt the mainstream media is, we must also account for the fact that it is often the earliest reports of an unanticipated event that are the most accurate and in this case we have available the raw, unfiltered police scanner audio which was recorded live as this event unfolded. Upon listening to these recordings, it is apparent that, for each report of a shooting at the aforementioned hotels, a strike team was deployed to investigate and in every case they found that there was no merit to the reports. Regarding the alleged shooting at Hooters and reports of bodies being carried out, it appears this location was used as a staging area for emergency vehicles. I am not certain of that, but this seems to be the case according to the videos i have viewed. That said, again, my primary focus for the purpose of this article is limited as to whether more than one gunman targeted the Route 91 Harvest Festival specifically and not whether there were shootings in other locations during this event.
Perhaps many are aware of the acoustic analysis preformed by Mike Adams of Natural News in which he claims to have proven that there was indeed a second gunman targeting the venue. Adams stated in his video that he performed a “forensic spectral analysis” of audio samples recorded by witnesses in order to reach that conclusion. He further stated that the entire process consumed only about three hours of his time and i honestly have to shake my head and wonder what kind of a “forensic spectral analysis” can be preformed in just three hours during a Sunday afternoon. Furthermore, to my knowledge, Mike has not followed up on his initial findings in order to accurately locate the second shooter he claims existed, even though he stated that doing so would be rather trivial.
Personally i think Mike is acting irresponsibly by promoting what he himself admits is an unfinished analysis, across multiple high-traffic websites including YouTube, Veterans Today, Shooting News and Natural News (his own website), with seemingly more regard for how many ‘clicks’ and ‘likes’ he can acquire rather than for how such information may negatively impact the victims of this event, their families and the public in general if it is incorrect, as i believe my own research demonstrates by using essentially the same math that Adams used. His YouTube video, Forensic acoustic proof of SECOND shooter in the Las Vegas massacre, has received over one million views as of this writing and he continues to capitalize upon this massacre with several follow-up videos, including another clickbait title, The public astonished to discover this PROOF of a second Las Vegas shooter. In fact, not only did Adams fail to prove there was a second shooter, he also neglected to fully publish the math and methods he used to reach his conclusions and therefore his hypothesis cannot be considered to be a result of a “forensic acoustic analysis” in my opinion.
There are real human victims of this slaughter and i’m sure that many of those left alive to grieve are desperate for answers, especially with regard to the mental state and motives of Stephan Paddock which i will address in some detail later. When these traumatized people come across a half-baked analysis that alleges there was a second gunman without offering any hard evidence to back that claim, i think they are being led down a sensationalist rabbit hole that only adds to the pain and anger they already carry. If there was more than one gunman, fine, but there must be evidence to support such a conclusion and Mike Adams failed miserably in that regard. That said, i must credit Adams for inspiring me to pick up the ball that he prematurely dropped and attempt to carry it to its logical conclusion.
After watching and listening to several of the videos recorded by eyewitnesses, like many, i was also initially quite certain that there was indeed more than one shooter because i thought i clearly heard overlapping gunfire as well as very different tones of gunfire, both of which could obviously indicate a second gunman. The possibility of a second shooter did not surprise me in the least. As a matter of fact, i had expected to confirm Adams’ claim of a second shooter, but that’s another story for another day, suffice to say that i’m aware of the bigger picture and how events like this are often manufactured and used for political purposes. In order to confirm of refute the multiple-shooter theory, i needed to determine the specific locations of several witness who had captured video near the concert venue so i could then plot those locations on a map. The locations of the witnesses, in conjunction with the audio they recorded, makes it possible to calculate bullet impact to muzzle report delay times which in turn can be used to determine whether there were multiple gunmen, as well as their possible locations. If this sounds like some kind of black magic, i assure you it isn’t. The math required to accomplish this is very simple and will be explained in greater detail later.
The sounds of bullet impacts and muzzle reports needs to be thoroughly addressed because it is here during the opening minutes of this event that a very significant mistake has been made by many witnesses and this mistake has propagated to those who have researched this shooting and concluded that there were multiple shooters. The problem here is that there were two, very different gun related sounds that night and the dramatic difference between them has been incorrectly interpreted by some as sounds which originated from different gunmen in different locations when in fact both sounds originated from the same source and the same location. One of the sounds was generated by bullets impacting the asphalt and other objects at the venue and the other sound was produced by the muzzle reports (the “bang” of the gun) of the weapon firing those bullets. In the video recordings the bullet impact sounds typically have a higher frequency and a shorter duration and they are of a higher amplitude. In other words they are generally louder and sharper, sounding more like a “crack” than a “bang”, while the muzzle reports sounded more like a “bang” and were not generally as loud at the concert area because of the distance between the concert and the gun firing the shots. I am quite certain that those witnesses who stated that the gunfire did not sound authentic, such as those that attributed it to firecrackers for example, said so because they queued in more on the louder cracks of the bullet impacts rather than on the muzzle reports which followed shortly thereafter. This is obviously a completely innocent mistake, one which i initially made myself even though i am familiar with guns. It is also a very significant mistake in that this alone has sent people off on wild goose chases for a second gunman which may never have existed.
Another interesting aspect that was likely in play during this event is something called ‘normalcy bias‘ which is basically where the mind attempts to put a radically abnormal event, like being shot at, into a normalized context so that it doesn’t have to deal with reality. This phenomena may explain the behavior of one guy who stood up among a crowd of people who were attempting to protect themselves in order to offer a single-fingered salute to the shooter while bullets were raining down in his immediate vicinity.
How evidence was processed
My research into the acoustic aspect of the Vegas shooting went something like this:
- Procure multiple witness videos for analysis where the witnesses were in close proximity to the music concert at the Route 91 Harvest Festival
- Plot the witness locations on a map
- Extract the audio tracks from the witness videos to be used for waveform analysis
- Note the times of the gunfire bursts in each audio file for each witness recording
- Analyze each burst of gunfire in each audio file in order to find samples that would provide good data with regard to calculating bullet impact to muzzle report delay times
- Determine the time offset between bullet impacts and the following muzzle reports at least once for each burst sample where the quality of the sample permitted
- Using some simple math and the bullet impact to muzzle report time difference, plot a circle around each witness that indicates the approximate distance of the shooter from each witness
- Gather enough data from enough witnesses to be able to indicate the position or positions of the shooter or shooters which can be determined from where the circles around multiple witnesses converge
The Stephanie interview
Watching and listening to the witness videos, especially without having a background in gunfire, can easily mislead one to conclude that there were multiple shooters and i’m quite certain that many of those present at the concert drew this erroneous conclusion in real-time, some even stating that they felt as though they were being chased, such as Stephanie does at about the 50 second mark in this interview with Fox 5:
When you extract the audio portions of the witness videos and look at the waveforms however — and i very much need to stress look, rather than just listen — it is readily apparent that, while there are indeed two very distinct sounds, it is quite obvious that they both originate from the same source.
I think it is obvious that Stephanie was not being untruthful when she stated that it felt as though she was being chased, nor when she said she could not understand how all of the gunfire could have come from one shooter. We can see how the drama of an event of this magnitude can easily result in an inaccurate recollection of the details however, even when the event being recalled occurred just minutes prior. An example of this is when Stephanie states that she felt like she had been running for approximately 30 minutes while the gunfire continued, though we know it lasted only about 10 minutes.
Like many other witnesses and researchers, Stephanie is probably not intimately familiar with gunfire and has probably never experienced a mass-shooting before, yet she was asked to piece together the fragments of a horrific event that occurred just prior to this interview while still under a great deal of stress. Stephanie isn’t lying of course, but i strongly suspect that her interpretation of this event regarding automatic gunfire and the sounds of bullet impacts and muzzle reports is based on something closer to what she has seen in movies rather than reality.
‘Looking’ at the sounds
The audio waveform above represents a very typical rapid fire sequence such as Stephanie surely heard. This kind of sequence is found in nearly all of the audio files which i have examined from witnesses located at or near the venue, though to widely varying degrees of quality depending on the amount of background noise. This particular sample is from the 00:06:04-00:06:07 time frame of an audio track extracted from a video titled, RAW VIDEO: Escape from Las Vegas shooting. In this graphic we can readily identify two distinct sounds, one of which is of a higher amplitude which represents bullet impacts, and the other a lower amplitude which follows the impacts and represents muzzle reports. You will notice that the last three bullet impact sounds that i have marked are closely followed by the last three muzzle reports from the gun. There is a delay between the two because of the location of the witness relative to the location of the shooter, the velocity of the projectiles and of course the speed of sound. Once you recognize the difference in the appearance of the sounds, you should be able to easily identify nearly all of the lower and higher amplitude spikes besides those which i have marked.
This pattern is found in nearly every one of the rapid fire bursts within and across multiple audio samples. The only exceptions that come to mind are samples which were recorded far enough away from the target area (the concert) that either the bullet impacts or the muzzle reports were not recorded, or instances where the background noise overrode the gunfire. It is vital to understand that for every video that i have analyzed which recorded rapid fire bursts where the projectiles impacted at or near the venue, they all recorded both sounds nearly simultaneously and these sounds are bullets striking asphalt and other objects (metal and glass in some instances) followed approximately 30 to 40 milliseconds later by the sound of the muzzle reports. The reason bullet impacts are heard before the muzzle report of the gun by the concert goers is because the bullet (assuming a .223 cal. Remington 55 gr. cartridge) is traveling roughly three times the speed of sound (approximately 3239 feet per second muzzle velocity) while the sound of the muzzle report (the gunshot) is traveling much slower at approximately 1138.52 feet per second (80 F air temperature assumed) and therefore the impact of the projectile is recorded before the muzzle report when it is recorded by someone close to the target area and further from the weapon (the distance between the venue and the snipers nest has been estimated to be approximately 1,360 ft.). If this were overlapping gunfire, as in multiple shooters, then all of the following would have to be true:
- Both gunman would have had to be using approximately the same caliber of weapon from the same distance because in nearly all of the firing sequences recorded in the videos i analyzed that were captured by people close to the venue, all of them sound very similar in duration, tone and the rate of fire
- According to the data provided by witness recordings and the calculated bullet impact to muzzle report delay times, both gunmen would have to be located in generally the same place and that would have to be in or near the Mandalay Bay hotel
- Both gunman would have had to be using a bump-stock or similar device because the telltale variations in the rapid fire sequences produced by such a device can be clearly heard in all of the samples i analyzed
- Both of the gunmen would have to had fired in almost perfect concert for every burst fire sequence with one of them, and it would have to be the same one each time, leading the other by approximately 30 to 40 milliseconds and they would had to have ceased firing in the same order with roughly the same 30 to 40 millisecond offset
Points 3 and 4 are crucial because they are essentially the clincher that debunks the multiple shooter theory for all those which have incorrectly interpreted bullet impacts and muzzle reports as both being gunfire from different gunmen. In order to further drive these points home, let’s demonstrate a typical rapid fire sequence in text form where ‘a’ represents the the sound of the bullets impacting the ground at the venue and ‘b’ represents the sound of the muzzle reports:
Although this example is exaggerated, you will notice two things here which hold true in the actual data which is presented later in this article and they are, 1), the time between the muzzle reports (b – the firing of the gun) is not consistent and this is because a bump-stock device relies heavily upon forces and pressures provided by the person using the weapon in order to operate, and 2), that the time gap between the bullet impacts (a) and the muzzle reports (b) is the same for every shot. In other words, both sounds follow exactly the same rhythm with the same one initiating the sequence every time and the other ending the sequence every time.
Again, the bullet impacts are heard before the gun shots by the concert goers because of the distance between them and the gun and their proximity to the impacts, as well as the speed that the bullet traveled which is roughly three times the speed of sound. The mistake that many people have made was to interpret the sounds of bullet impacts (a) and muzzle reports (b) as having come from multiple shooters, yet it is simply not possible for one human being to fire a weapon in concert with another to this degree of accuracy. This is why i stressed earlier that it is vital to look at the actual audio waveforms of the recordings using audio editing software rather than only listen to them. Once you see the audio waveforms and realize that there are two very distinct sounds with different amplitudes and tones, yet both sounds follow the same rhythm with approximately the same 30-40 millisecond offset, it becomes obvious that they both originate from the same source.
Having said that, no, the above explanation does not debunk those proposing different theories of multiple shooters targeting the concert specifically, but i think the rest of my data does.
The ‘taxi video’
Regarding what i call the ‘taxi video’, of which my copy is titled Vegas Shooting Taxi Driver’s Video ! Must Watch B4 Well You Know , The Take Down !, it seems this video in particular has attracted loads of attention from those who use it to promote a multiple shooter scenario and it is not at all difficult to understand why upon viewing it.
This video was recorded by a woman operating a taxi in very close proximity to the Mandalay Bay hotel main entrance near the same wing and just 32 floors below where the sniper nest is alleged to have been. In it there are several rapid fire sequences, some of which are very loud, very clear, and very nearby and which are obviously indicative of gunfire, however during the same video one can also hear gunfire which sounds much more muted and farther away. The driver even remarks about this at one point, stating that the gunfire sounds “like it’s coming from farther away”. It seems many have concluded that the different sounds of the gunfire in this video are proof of a second shooter, but this conclusion is incorrect in my opinion. Having said that, i must admit that i too had initially assumed that multiple shooters were firing from different locations when i watched this video, but i eventually realized that there is a less dramatic and more logical explanation. What i believe logically explains the different sounding gunfire is that the shooter in the Mandalay Bay hotel room moved away from the window in order to fire at an approaching threat inside the hotel. Could this have been when Jesus Campos was shot at? We are told the gunman fired approximately 200 rounds through the front door of room 32-135 at hotel security officer Jesus Campos and, later, hotel engineer Stephen Schuck. If that is true, and it appears it is, then the shooter would had to have moved well away from the broken window of the hotel room in order to fire through the entry door at Campos and Schuck and this would have resulted in a dramatic difference in the way the gunfire sounded to anyone within hearing range either inside or outside of the hotel. While the difference in the sound of the firing sequences as heard in the taxi driver video could possibly be explained by the use of different weapons and/or the shooter moving between the two broken windows in rooms 32-134 and 32-135, i think the most logical conclusion is that it was simply the result of the gunman shooting first from the broken window in 32-135, where all of the .223 casings were found, and then changing position in order to shoot through the hotel room door at the approaching hotel staff. Either way, i hope i have sufficiently explained how noticeably different sounds of gunfire could easily have originated from the same source, the same general location and even the same weapon.
According to the data i have derived from multiple witness videos, the hypothesis that i believe to be correct at this time is that there was only one shooter that targeted the venue at the Route 91 Harvest Festival in Las Vegas on the night of October 1st, 2017, and that shooter was located in or near the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino.
The locations of several witnesses who were positioned close to the festival are plotted on the map below. Surrounding and centered around each witness is a colored circle specific to that witness which, based on the data below, indicates the approximate distance of the shooter from that particular witness. The diameter of each circle around each witness is determined by calculating the bullet impact to muzzle report delay time as per the ‘bullet time to distance’ chart below.
If we only look at the data for only a single witness, then the shooter could be positioned anywhere along the circumference of the circle surrounding that witness, however when the data for multiple witnesses in different locations is plotted, then we can determine not only an approximate distance of the shooter or shooters, but also their approximate positions if there was more than one. Looking at the image below, all of the circles around the witnesses converge closest to the Mandalay Bay which is consistent with a single shooter in or near the hotel. The smaller red circle nearest the Mandalay Bay indicates where the circles tend to converge the tightest and thus it indicates the approximate position of the gunman.
You will have to enlarge the image below to see the detail. If simply clicking it does not enlarge it enough, try right-clicking it and choosing to view it in a new window or tab, or copy the image location and paste the URL in a new window/tab.
The gap between the circles and the Mandalay Bay could be because the reference bullet caliber i used for my calculations (.223) may be different than the actual caliber used, though i don’t believe this is likely since, according to the LVMPD, all 14 of the weapons that were equipped with a bump-stock were .223 caliber AR-15s. Another possibility is that the bullet weight that i chose (55 gr.) is not accurate and another possibility is that the cartridge i chose is not accurate in terms of the bullet type and load. Both of these variables could affect the diameter of the circles around the witnesses and thus put the shooter somewhat closer or further from the Mandalay bay, but still along the same general line between the venue and the hotel. Although it is also possible there is a problem with the math i used, the data would still indicate a single shooter though, again, the location could be closer or further from the Mandalay Bay. There are also other variables to consider, such as the precise location of the witnesses which i was not able to determine, though i believe the margin of error should be no more than a few yards and much less than that in some cases where there were clear visual references that could be referenced. There may also be other variables which i have not considered, though in my opinion i believe that the potential impact such variables might have upon the data would be minimal.
Regardless of the potential inaccuracies in my data as far locating the shooter, we still have the ‘taxi video’ and other audio/video evidence which clearly indicates that the gunman was in very close proximity to her position near the main entrance of the Mandalay Bay. Again, it is not only the raw data that indicates a single gunman, but also the sound of the gunfire which, except for the expected variations in amplitude, sounds very much the same across all of the witness videos i have analyzed in terms of the average firing rate, the subtle variations in the firing rate which is indicative of a bump-stock device, the burst times and the tone.
Following are a few of my personal observations that i think are relevant to this case.
I think it must be seriously considered that there are several instances of potential foreknowledge of this event, one of which arrived in the form of several posts on the public message board 4chan on September 10, 2017, roughly three weeks prior to the attack, by someone identifying them self as “john”:
Another potential instance of foreknowledge resulted from statements made to the news media by an alleged eyewitness, Brianna Hendricks, who stated that a Hispanic-looking woman, accompanied by a male subject, pushed her way to the front row of the concert and told people that they were all going to die approximately 45 minutes prior to the time the shooting began. Brianna further stated the following:
It seemed she was telling us to either warn us, or she was part of it and she was telling us because she knew we were going to die. It was so scary.[…]
It felt like she had knowledge of what was about to happen.[…]
She said they’re all around us and we were going to die.
According to Snopes — a highly dubious resource if ever there was one — they interviewed Brianna and claim that she altered her story in that the remarks of the unidentified woman may have been directed solely at a single person or small group which this woman had a dispute with. If this is true, could such alterations be the result of pressure upon her to conform to a predetermined narrative, or did Brianna genuinely feel that her original statement was inaccurate and wanted to amend it? I don’t know, but given the level of detail and her demeanor in the original press interview, i suspect the answer may possibly be something closer to the former. Perhaps the bigger question is why the LVMPD has failed to comment regarding the statements made by Brianna Hendricks or who the unidentified woman was. Perhaps Snopes rang the bell that saved them from having to do so.
It is also quite interesting that, similar to the alleged insider trading prior to the September 11, 2001, attack upon the U.S., James Murren, the CEO of MGM Resorts International, which owns the Mandalay Bay, dumped 259,760 shares of stock on the 7th of September, 2017, and another 34,390 shares on the 8th for a total value of $10,024,632 and he did so during a time when the value of the stock was apparently rising. What kind of confidence is instilled among the investors when the CEO dumps a the vast majority of their holdings in the company? The day after the shooting MGM Resorts International stock fell 5.7%. From Disobedient Media:
It’s currently unclear why Murren chose to sell when he did. To date, MGM’s stock has not experienced a significant decline in value due to the repurchasing program. It could be interpreted to run against the company’s interests for the CEO to convey a sense of urgency in the selling of his shares by disposing of them immediately after the commencement of his company’s share repurchase program. It’s also strange that the CEO of a company would sell more than half of their stake (let alone 80%) in the company that they represented.
Further details regarding these stock transactions can be found at The Ledger Gazette.
James Murren was not the only one who profited huge as a result of the falling value of the stock. On August 14, 2017, George Soros placed a put call for 1,350,000 shares on MGM Resorts International for a profit of $42,242,000. And there were others who profited also; see the article Insider Trading and Financial Anomalies Surrounding the Las Vegas Attack. The LVMPD and the FTC have yet to comment on any of this as far as i am aware.
The adjoining door
According to the LVMPD Preliminary Investigative Report, there were eight expended .308 caliber casings found in room 32-134 (the smaller of two rooms outlined in black in the image above), all of which appear to have been single shots that were directed at the fuel storage tank at the McCarran Airport. The remainder of the expended rounds, approximately 1,050 .223 caliber casings according to the report, were all found in room 32-135 and were presumably all fired at the concert venue. While the two different types of ammunition being found in separate rooms does indeed help to clear up some concerns i had as to why the shooter would break out two windows in different rooms, it still doesn’t answer all of my questions. Most concerning to me is that we were told by the LVMPD that S.W.A.T. had to use an explosive charge to breach the adjoining door that connected rooms 134 and 135 in order to gain access to room 134 and it seems there may be a problem with that. When S.W.A.T. breached the front entry door to room 135, they apparently blew it off the hinges and caused significant damage to the door and the door frame, yet the photograph of the 134-135 adjoining door seems to show no damage to the door or the door frame. It is pictured here from room 32-135 looking south into room 32-134:
Does this door look like it was subjected to an explosive breach? The door, its latch, its hinges and the door frame all appear to be in pristine condition to me and i can tell you from personal experience that this is simply not possible when you force a door open. The damage to either the door, the door frame, or both would have been significant had this door been kicked open, much less subjected to an explosive charge. Furthermore, how could the door be breached from room 135 without damaging it when the door opens inward to room 135? We know this photograph was captured from room 135 because of the carpet pattern. From page 7 of the Preliminary Investigative Report we read:
After a successful breach of the doors to room 32-135, officers entered the room and found Paddock deceased on the floor. Paddock appeared to have a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head. Officers cleared the remainder of the room and observed multiple rifles in various locations throughout the room as well as hundreds of expended casings. A second explosive breach was utilized to gain access to room 32-134 through the connecting doors.
Am i missing something obvious here, because the condition of the door does not jive at all with the report as far as i can determine.
The whirlybird sniper
Regarding the completely baseless speculation that there was a sniper shooting from a helicopter, good luck proving that a), it happened and b), that a legally required anti-collision beacon or strobe light, which happens to be flashing terribly out of sync with the gunfire, is actually muzzle flashes. As per the FAA Night Operations Handbook for aircraft, chapter 13, pg. 13-7, 13-8:
All recently manufactured aircraft certificated for night flight must have an anticollision light that makes the aircraft more visible to other pilots. This light is either a red or white flashing light and may be in the form of a rotating beacon or a strobe. While anticollision lights are required for night visual flight rules (VFR) flights, they may be turned off any time they create a distraction for the pilot.
Understand that i am not stating as 100% certifiable fact that only one shooter targeted the concert, but i will confidently state as fact that the data which i have accumulated over the better part of a week, including what my eyes see and ears hear, does not indicate the presence of a second shooter, not at nor near the venue and certainly not from a helicopter. Again, for the purpose of this work, i have not seriously considered shooting events which may or may not have occurred at other locations, though every one of these reports was apparently addressed by police and found to be without merit.
In my opinion, Paddock does not seem to fit the profile of a mass-murder given what information is available at this time, however if he was in fact prescribed diazepam (Valium) as indeed appears to be the case, then the potential side-effects of these dangerous drugs must be seriously considered as a possible factor in this shooting. It is also well worth mentioning that such drugs are present in many mass shootings dating at least as far back as Columbine (20-Apr-1999) where Kevin Harris was apparently taking fluvoxamine (Luvox) and Dylan Klebold is alleged to have been taking Paxil and Zoloft. One could argue that it sounds quite reasonable that such drugs readily appear in these mass-shooting events because the people taking them were diagnosed and treated for psychological problems, however at least some of the previous mass-shooters showed no tendency toward violence whatsoever prior to the consumption of these drugs and in fact some have written or verbalized how the drugs made them feel angry, depressed and/or disconnected soon after they began taking them. The potential side-effects for diazepam, as well as many of the mind-altering SSRI drugs, are very dangerous and include the following:
- false beliefs that cannot be changed by facts
- feeling sad or empty
- feeling that others are watching you or controlling your behavior
- feeling, seeing, or hearing things that are not there
- lack of memory of what takes place after a certain event
- loss of interest or pleasure (reported by Marilou Danley to investigators)
- outbursts of anger
- sleep disturbances
- unusual behavior (reported by Marilou Danley to investigators as well as by Paddock’s doctor)
- unusual tiredness or weakness (reported by Stephan Paddock to primary doctor, family, friends)
- change in consciousness
- loss of strength or energy (reported by Stephan Paddock to primary doctor, family, friends)
- muscle pain or weakness (reported by Stephan Paddock to primary doctor, family, friends)
- unusual drowsiness, dullness, tiredness, weakness, or feeling of sluggishness (reported to primary doctor by Stephan Paddock)
- decreased interest in sexual intercourse (reported by Marilou Danley to investigators)
Also “inappropriate behavior and other adverse behavioral effects have been reported when using benzodiazepines” according to the drug sheet on the FDA website.
We can turn to page 23 of the LVMPD Preliminary Investigative Report in order to confirm that Paddock seems to have been suffering from several problems which could be attributed to diazepam:
Marilou Danley stated Paddock’s demeanor changed over the course of the last year. According to her, Paddock had become “distant” and their relationship was no longer intimate.
And from page 24:
Paddock made numerous claims to friends and family that he consistently felt ill, in pain or fatigued.[…]
The physician described Paddock as “odd” in behavior with “little emotion” shown. He believed Paddock may have had bipolar disorder however, Paddock did not want to discuss that topic further with him. Paddock also refused anti-depressant medication but accepted prescriptions for anxiety.
If Paddock refused anti-depressant medication, that obviously indicates that his doctor had diagnosed him with depression. What role may that have played in the shooting, even without diazepam? What can happen when someone suffering from depression is prescribed diazepam which is intended to treat anxiety?
And finally from page 38:
The attached southeast bathroom had a tub along the north wall with two glass vacuum suction holders on top of the tub ledge, a sink counter along the south wall with toiletries to include a prescription for “Diazepam 10 MG” in the name of “Steve Paddock”, and two inhalers.
The obvious questions here are, when was diazepam first prescribed and how much was being consumed by Paddock, because the symptoms reported by Paddock’s doctor, his girlfriend and himself, are all in the list of side-effects for diazepam. According to drugs.com, the maximum recommended dosage of diazepam for treating anxiety in an adult is 10 mg. four times per day and according to the police report, Paddock’s prescription was for 10 mg.. Furthermore, under the section titled ‘What should I avoid while taking diazepam?‘ on drugs.com, it clearly states that alcohol should be avoided:
This medication may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.
Avoid drinking alcohol. Dangerous side effects could occur.
Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with diazepam and lead to unwanted side effects. Discuss the use of grapefruit products with your doctor.
And yet on page 10 of the LVMPD Preliminary Investigative Report we read the following regarding the sequence of events for September 30:
From approximately 1204 to 1215 hours hotel staff serviced the private mini bar of room 32-134.
Was Paddock consuming alcohol along with diazepam and, if so, how much alcohol did he consume? How much diazepam was he taking? Was he taking more than what was prescribed? Are the side-effects of diazepam the cause and motive that law enforcement is seeking? We know from an autopsy conducted by Dr. Lisa Gavin of the Clark County coroner’s office that nordiazepam, oxazepan and temazepan where found in Paddock’s urine which apparently indicates the presence of diazepam. There is no mention of alcohol.
From and article on mentalhelp.net titled Valium Overdose Symptoms, Signs, Effects & Treatment, we find a list of symptoms for someone who consumes too much Valium and they include the following:
- lowered mental capacities
In a UPI article regarding the autopsy titled Autopsy for Vegas shooter Stephen Paddock shows no insight into motives, we read:
A separate examination of his brain at Stanford University found no major abnormalities, including no evidence of Alzheimer’s disease.
This statement completely contradicts the very next sentence in the same article which says that “The brain had ‘the most striking abnormality’ in the hippocampus, a part of the brain involving human learning and memory.” An article in the Los Angeles Times adds a bit more detail:
The autopsy also included a short report from Stanford University, which studied his brain to determine whether there was anything unusual. It revealed what it called “the most striking abnormality” in the hippocampus, a part of the brain involving human learning and memory. The report did not say whether the abnormalities might have affected his behavior.
At this point in time it is my opinion that the drug diazepam may be the motivational elephant in the room that law enforcement is seeking, however based on my research regarding the trillion dollar and politically well-connected pharmaceutical industry, i can tell you to a high degree of certainty that if diazepam did play a significant role in this shooting, its role will never be revealed.
The venue lights
Why were the venue lights switched on soon after the shooting started, thus illuminating the crowd and making them easier to target? Who made this decision?
Guns guns guns
Why all the guns? Even if we assume Paddock was selling guns, which appears to be likely according to the LVMPD, why cart a literal truck-load of guns to a well-planned mass-shooting when you only need a few and you know you’re not going to get out alive? A handful of guns would have been sufficient in my opinion, perhaps three to five for sniping (allowing for barrel overheating and varying distances to different targets) along with one or two for close range encounters with security and law enforcement, and finally a handgun to end it all when your options run out because it’s quite obvious that the suspect had no hope of escaping from the 32nd floor of a hotel in one of the most surveilled cities on the planet. So why all the guns? Does diazepam, possibly along with alcohol, provide an answer to the seemingly nonsensical decision bring along 10+ suitcases full of weapons and ammunition?
Though i have no proof, based on my previous research into such events, i suspect there is more to the story than just Stephan Paddock and diazepam. I think this shooting may have served multiple agendas, including a continued assault on the second amendment, the opportunity for certain powerful investors (George Soros and Michael Chertoff according the “john” posts on 4chan) to profit from the sales of security equipment, as well as many others who profited from the drop in MGMs stock value, as well as to instill yet more fear in the public mind which can then be used to influence public opinion. I am also extremely suspicious of the FBI and what role they may have played (and i emphasize ‘may’) in the planning of this event. This corrupt organization has an incredibly disturbing track record of blatant criminal behavior in many previous instances, including the deliberate manufacturing of domestic terrorists in order to later arrest them, thus “preventing” a terrorist attack that otherwise would likely not have happened and thereby justifying their enormous budget.
Lastly, this bizarre case is so full of holes, contradictions, alterations and unanswered questions that it stretches the official narrative to its breaking point in my opinion, however we must understand that the final police report has yet to be issued which, according to sheriff Lombardo, may not happen until late 2018.
This has been a difficult undertaking for me. Because i choose to do a video and audio analysis of the gunshots, and because i needed to hear every detail in the witness videos, i had to wear high quality headphones and this made it seem as though i was physically with these people. The screams and pleas for help and all of the noise and confusion during this horror lived inside my head as i listened over and over and over again to these videos. It’s difficult to imagine what it was like for those that actually lived it.
Please feel free to share your comments. You need not register to leave a comment and if you wish to comment anonymously, just use a fake email address. If you were a witness to this event or have sensitive information to share, you have my assurance that your right to privacy will be maintained. You can contact me privately here.
If you’re curious about how the data for the map above was derived, read on. I may work further on this, so do not consider it complete. There may be errors, so do not consider it perfect. If you have any feedback, questions, or find any errors, feel free to leave a comment or contact me privately.
general observations -------------------- * several shot sequences are approximately 10 seconds * no shot sequences seem to be any longer than 10-11 seconds * some 10 second shot sequences are very close to other firing sequences, such as the 00:03:25-00:03:27 and 00:03:30-00:03:40 sequences in the  video - if the shooter had to reload after a 10 second burst, i doubt there was enough time to eject, reload, reacquire the target area and begin firing, nor do i think there was time to pick up another weapon which, for the example given, there is only approximately 3 seconds between bursts * i cannot detect any muzzle flashes from the Paddock hotel room (or anywhere else) from the videos i examined, particularly from witness  which includes some fairly steady footage of the Mandalay Bay during a rapid fire sequence - i adjusted the brightness, contrast and color saturation of the video to a large degree and could not observe flashes - although many of the videos are not of the highest quality, i still find this odd - the shooter certainly was not using a silencer and i tend to doubt that a flash suppressor alone would mask the muzzle flashes * although Paddock apparently had 20+ guns in his room, it is unusual for any of the gunshot sequences to differ in amplitude and tone within the same witness recordings and often they differ little between different witness recordings - the bump-stock type repetitive fire variations are present in every video - this begs the question as to whether Paddock, the alleged shooter, ever used more than one type/caliber of weapon and, if he did not, then why bring 20+ guns which is an utterly absurd number
Ballistic calculation resources
Atmospheric conditions in Las Vegas, October 1st, 2017:
A 20 degree angle was used for ballistics calculations based on a rough estimate using Google Maps:
The cartridge used for ballistics calculations is assumed to be a .223 Remington, metal case, 55 gr. cartridge. This caliber is based on the weapons found by police in rooms 32-134 and 32-135 which were equipped with bump-stock devices, of which there were 14, all of them .223 caliber. The weight of the bullet (55 gr.) is estimated. Here is the ballistics table for that cartridge:
This is the chart i used to calculate bullet time to distance, corrected for atmospheric conditions and shooter angle:
How calculations were preformed
calculations ------------ * ballistic calculations were preformed using the Ballistic Calculator tool from GunData.org  * distances from projectile impacts to muzzle reports are calculated from witness recordings close to the concert where projectile impacts are recorded before the audible muzzle report - from this data the estimated distance to the shooter is derived and, given enough data from multiple witnesses, shooter position can be derived * cartridge (assumed): .223 Remington, Remington Metal Case, 55gr (used for ballistic calculations) - ballistic coefficient: 0.202 - initial velocity: 3240 ft/s - bullet weight: 55 gr. - zero range: 100 yds. - shooting angle: 20 deg. - sight height: 1.5" - wind velocity: 0 - wind angle: 0 - drag function: G1 | Ingalls - air temp: 80 F - altitude: 2030 ft. - atmospheric pressure: 29.53 - relative humidity: 24% * Las Vegas temperature, 1-Oct-2017, 10p: 80 deg. F (used for ballistic calculations and speed of sound)  * Las Vegas relative humidity, Oct: 24% (used for ballistic calculations)  * speed of sound @ 80 deg. F: 1138.52 ft/s  * map radius's surrounding each witness location as plotted on the map are calculated using the projectile impact to muzzle report delay figures - added to the distance is the difference between the witness location and the target area (rough center of open area in front of stage) to create the corrected distances which are then used to calculate the radius around the witness - the corrected distance was measured on Google Maps using the built-in measuring tool sound time to distance feet ms ------------ 1800 1581 1650 1449 1500 1317 1350 1186 1200 1054 1050 922 900 790 750 659 600 527 450 395 300 263 150 132 projectile time to distance feet ms ----------- 1800 928 1650 809 1500 700 1350 600 1200 509 1050 426 900 350 750 280 600 215 450 155 300 100 150 48  https://www.wunderground.com/history/airport/KVGT/2017/10/1/DailyHistory.html? req_city=Las+Vegas&req_state=NV&req_statename=Nevada&reqdb.zip=89101&reqdb.magic =1&reqdb.wmo=99999  https://www.weather.gov/epz/wxcalc_speedofsound  http://www.las-vegas.climatemps.com/humidity.php  http://gundata.org/ballistic-calculator/
SOFTWARE USED ------------- os: GNU/Linux Mint packages: Waterfox (web browser) Scrapbook X (extension to save and organize web content) Audacity (audio editor) GIMP (image editor) Kate (text/code editor) youtube-dl (download video, extract audio) KSnapshot (screen capture) VLC (media player)
Data derived from witness recordings
Witness  analysis
witness  scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations reference video: RARE ANGLE LAS VEGAS SHOOTING FOOTAGE FROM FRONT ROW video source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=miznwQu3WyE data ---- * approx. distance to Mandalay shooter window: * approx. distance to center of concert area: notes ----- * the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles: 1000 + 1075 + 925 + 1000 + 840 + 930 / 6 = 961.67' audio sample (h:m:s) impact (h:m:s) report (h:m:s) delay (s) distance (ft) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 00:00:00-00:00:10  00:00:46-00:00:57 00:00:46.14 00:00:46.54 0.4 1000 00:00:46-00:00:57 00:00:55.86 00:00:56.3 0.44 1075 00:01:13-00:01:15 00:01:14.69 00:01:15.05 0.36 925 00:01:15-00:01:24 00:01:15.45 00:01:15.85 0.4 1000 00:01:42-00:01:53 00:01:43.12 00:01:43.44 0.32 840 00:01:42-00:01:53 00:01:51.55 00:01:51.91 0.36 930  unable to obtain a good impact/report sample
Witness  analysis
witness  scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations reference video: A personal story on Vegas Concert video source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBZMh19_Dws (deleted) witness name: Lisa Fine data ---- * approx. distance to Mandalay shooter window: 1,186' * approx. distance to center of concert area: 85' notes ----- * the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles: 1040 + 1025 / 2 = 1032.5' * it is assumed that some of the firing sequences in this sound track consist of bullet impacts followed by muzzle reports for the following reasons: 1) the shear sharpness of the higher frequency sounds preceding the lower amplitude and lower frequency sounds, 2) the 00:00:14-00:00:16, 00:02:37-00:02:44 and 00:02:44-00:02:47 samples where apparently bullets can be heard striking objects in the vicinity of the witness, possibly glass in the 00:00:14-00:00:16 sample and metal in the 00:02:37-00:02:44 and 00:02:44-00:02:47 samples, and 3), because of the witness location which is much closer to the concert than to Mandalay Bay which would account for bullet impacts being recorded before muzzle reports * at 00:02:43.27, 00:02:45.9 and 00:02:46.3 there are bullet impacts that sound like they are extremely close to the witness - one of the latter two impacts, and i don't know which, may possibly be seen in image file "003-bullet-impact.png" - this could just be an anomaly in the video since this small bright area on the pole in front of the witness appears for only a single frame, however it does correspond with the spike in the audio that sounds like a bullet striking a metallic object audio sample (h:m:s) impact (h:m:s) report (h:m:s) delay (s) distance (ft) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 00:00:15-00:00:16 [1,2] 00:00:16-00:00:18  00:00:22-00:00:24 00:00:22.36 00:00:22.78 0.42 1040 00:01:26-00:01:29 00:01:27.72 00:01:28.13 0.41 1025 00:01:31-00:01:41  00:02:01-00:02:11  00:02:35-end   unable to obtain a good impact/report sample  breaking glass at 00:15:35-00:15:42
Witness  analysis
witness  scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations reference video: Las Vegas Shooting (FIRST SHOTS) _RARE video source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zT5sUUgsO_Y data ---- * approx. distance to center of concert area: 156', 1,578' * approx. distance to Paddock hotel room: 1,355', 2,033' notes ----- * the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles: 1125 + 1110 / 2 = 1117.5' * corrected distance is derived from the difference in feet from the witness location to the approximate center of the concert area in front of the stage where bullets impacted - this corrected difference is then added to the distance figures below * from ~00:02:00 on, the witness is moving almost constantly and further away from the Mandalay Bay hotel, then moves slightly closer to it in the last few minutes audio sample (h:m:s) impact (h:m:s) report (h:m:s) delay (s) distance (ft) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 00:03:12-00:03:14  00:03:17-00:03:18 00:03:17.13 00:03:17.6 0.47 1125 00:03:19-00:03:21 00:03:19.65 00:03:20.11 0.46 1110 00:03:51-00:04:01 [2,6] 00:04:39-00:04:49  00:05:06-00:05:16  00:05:35-00:05:44 [2,3] 00:07:00-00:07:01 [2,4] 00:07:08-00:07:09  00:07:33-00:07:34 [1,2] 00:07:35-00:07:36 [1,2] 00:08:45-00:08:47 [1,2] 00:08:49-00:08:57 [1,2] 00:09:55-00:10:02 [1,2] 00:10:21-00:10:22 [1,2] 00:10:22-00:10:24 [5,2] 00:11:17-00:11:26 [1,2] 00:12:35-00:12:38 [1,2] 00:12:40-00:12:44  00:13:02-00:13:07   possible rapid fire, very low amplitude  unable to obtain a good impact/report sample  no impacts detected  possible impact or report, possible small-arms fire  although the 00:10:22-00:10:24 sample closely follows the 00:10:21-00:10:22 sample, the tone is noticeably different  at approx. 00:03:53 in the video, there is a man in a white shirt on the left side of the frame that seems to drop to the ground as though he was shot in the head
Witness  analysis
witness  scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations reference video: 2 SHOOTERS HEARD 0:48 LAS VEGAS SHOOTING FOOTAGE video source: (deleted from YouTube) alternate video source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zDGbLqOH7Y data ---- * approx. distance to Mandalay shooter window: 1,081' * approx. distance to center of concert area: 112' notes ----- * the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles: 1110 + 1025 + 975 + 820 + 875 / 5 = 961 audio sample (h:m:s) impact (h:m:s) report (h:m:s) delay (s) distance (ft) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 00:00:13-00:00:16 00:00:15.18 00:00:15.64 0.46 1110 00:00:18-00:00:28 00:00:18.28 00:00:18.69 0.41 1025 00:00:49-00:00:59  00:01:23-00:01:31 00:01:27.16 00:01:27.55 0.39 975 00:01:31-00:01:35  00:01:49-00:01:58  00:01:57.55 00:01:57.87 0.32 820 00:01:58-00:02:01  00:01:58.3 00:01:58.64 0.34 875  unable to obtain a good impact/report sample  sequence begins with a high amplitude, low frequency burst of about 8 shots which sound like muzzle reports, however the amplitude and frequency of the sounds is significantly different than the other muzzle reports in this video  distance estimate appears to be wildly incorrect, especially given that the amplitude and frequency of the muzzle reports is similar to other samples in this video
Witness  analysis
witness  scope: measure muzzle report to echo delay in order to determine shooter distances and, along with data from other witnesses, locations reference video: Video Las Vegas shooting during concert WARNING Disturbing content video source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WV1zMdabikc data ---- * approx. distance to Mandalay shooter window: 1,220' * approx. distance to center of concert area: 125' notes ----- * the following distances were averaged to plot witness circles: 1060 audio sample (h:m:s) impact (h:m:s) report (h:m:s) delay (s) distance (ft) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 00:00:00-00:00:03  00:00:38-00:00:50  00:01:06-00:01:17 00:01:06.37 00:01:06.8 0.43 1060 00:01:36-00:01:45  00:02:36-00:02:37  00:03:41-00:03:43   unable to obtain a good impact/report sample
Following is a partial list of resources used to write this article.
- .223 Ballistics Chart & Coefficient | GunData.org
- Alexander Rose on 9/11 Commission & Insider Trading on National Review Online | Alexander Rose, National Review
- Antidepressant Nightmares | SSRI Stories
- Autopsy for Vegas shooter Stephen Paddock shows no insight into motives | Allen Cone, UPI
- Bump fire | Wikipedia
- Casino stocks fall, led by Mandalay Bay-owner MGM, after Las Vegas shooting | Fred Imbert, CNBC
- Could police have taken down the Las Vegas gunman Stephen Paddock sooner? | Michael Balsamo, Toronto Star
- Diazepam: Drug Uses, Dosage & Side Effects | Drugs.com
- Diazepam overdose | MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
- FAA Night Operations Handbook for aircraft, chapter 13: Night Operations (PDF)
- FACT CHECK: Did an Unidentified Woman Warn Las Vegas Concert-Goers They Were ‘All Going to Die’? | Dan MacGuill, Snopes
- FBI: Paddock’s girlfriend helped load ammo into magazines | Doug Poppa, Baltimore Post-Examiner
- Forensic acoustic proof of SECOND shooter in the Las Vegas massacre | Mike Adams, YouTube
- Full Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Dispatch Scanner Audio Mass shooting (Warning Graphic) | ScannerAudio, YouTube
- Global Pharmaceutical Industry – Statistics & Facts | Statista
- Insider Trading and Financial Anomalies Surrounding the Las Vegas Attack | ZeroPointNow, Zero Hedge
- Las Vegas Metropolitan Police | YouTube Channel
- Las Vegas shooting: This is what investigators found in Stephen Paddock’s hotel room | WKBW.com Buffalo, NY
- Las Vegas shooter had a diazepam prescription — here’s what that means | Lydia Ramsey, Business Insider
- Las Vegas shooting: Woman told crowd ‘you’re all going to f***ing die’ before attack started | Adam Lusher, The Independent
- LVMPD Preliminary Investigative Report – 1 October / Mass Casulaty Shooting (PDF)
- MGM Resorts International (MGM) Director Buys $562,500.00 in Stock | Nicole Wilson, The Ledger Gazette
- Massacre at Columbine high – Bloodbath leaves 15 dead, 28 hurt | SSRI Stories
- Murtaza Hussain on the Latest Phony FBI Terror Bust | James Corbett, The Corbett Report
- [NEW] First Las Vegas Witness Interviewed After the Shooting | News hot, YouTube
- Normalcy bias | Wikipedia
- PADDOCK WAS ON THE SAME DRUG “Diazepam” AS JOHN HINKLEY JR. WHEN HE SHOT PRESIDENT REGAN | Rob Lauer, 360Daily.net
- Reality Check: Mass Shootings & Psychiatric Drugs | Ben Swann, YouTube
- Report: 1 October gunman’s girlfriend details relationship, mental state | Tom George, KTNV.com Las Vegas
- Rahm Emanuel “Never Let A Good Crisis Go To Waste” | Ron Gant, YouTube
- RAW VIDEO: Escape from Las Vegas shooting | Las Vegas Review-Journal, YouTube
- Snopes Caught Lying For Their Friends At CNN | Sean Adl-Tabatabai, Your News Wire
- Speed of Sound Calculator | National Weather Service
- Stephen Paddock | Wikipedia
- The CIA and the Media | Carl Bernstein
- The FBI Fosters, Funds and Equips American Terrorists | James Corbett, The Corbett Report
- The trigonometry of terror: Why the Las Vegas shooting was so deadly | LA Times
- UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION – SEC FORM 4 – MGM Resorts International (stock transactions)
- UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION – SEC FORM 13-F Information Table (George Soros stock put call)
- Valium brand of diazepam tablets | FDA
- Valium Overdose Symptoms, Signs, Effects & Treatment | MentalHelp.net
- Vegas shooter had anti-anxiety drugs in his system, autopsy shows, but motive behind massacre remains a mystery | David Montero, Los Angeles Times
- Vegas Shooting Taxi Driver’s Video ! Must Watch B4 Well You Know , The Take Down ! | Barbie Sioux Cherokee Sparrow Hawk, YouTube
- Violence Caused by Antidepressants: An Update after Munich | Peter Breggin, MD, Mad In America
- What Was Going On With MGM Resorts In September? | William Craddick, Disobedient Media
Change logClick to expand...
- initial publication
- added information about possible foreknowledge of the shooting
- added information regarding the ‘Stephanie’ interview
- misc. minor edits and typo corrections
- minor corrections to witness  data
- minor correction to witness  circle on map
- removed the ‘personal observations that are beyond the scope of this work’ section in the ‘general observations’ file and incorporated it in the main body of this document
- added info about the MGM stock sale
- updated and edited other content
- edited and clarified information regarding the gap between the converging circles around the witnesses and the Mandalay Bay hotel
- major corrections to all of the witness data, however the results remain essentially the same
- removed witness data that either was not relevant to my analysis, or where the witnesses were too far away from the festival to provide accurate data
- uploaded new image files for most of this document and added a couple more
- corrected some text in all of the witness analysis files (this has no effect upon the data)
- added data for a new witness,
, to replace the old data for the old
witness whose data was not usable
- minor edits
- fixed a broken link
- added more info regarding FAA requirements for flying aircraft at night
- edited video link for ‘Stephanie’ interview since YouTube deleted the original as part of their censorship campaign
- typo correction
- minor edits, polishing
- added more info about the James Murren stock dump
- added info about George Soros betting against MGM stock
- added more info regarding the stock trades prior to the shooting
- minor edits
- mostly minor updates to content as per information released in the LVMPD Preliminary Investigative Report – 1 October / Mass Casulaty Shooting report dated 18-Jan-2018
- expanded upon the use of diazepam by Paddock given info in the police report and other sources
- added a ‘Resources’ section which lists some of the resources used to write this article
- misc. minor edits
- rewrote and rearranged a lot of content to make it more clear
- expanded on the role diazepam may have played in the shooting
- expanded on my personal observations
- expanded on the ‘evidence’ section
- misc. other edits
- shuffled around and clarified some content
- added a couple new resources
- removed the entire section related to what i thought was an anomaly with the stairwell door – i since discovered there are two stairwell doors and i did not know this – sloppy work on my part
- expanded a bit more on the role diazepam may have played in this shoting
- re-titled and moved some things around
- cleaned up formatting on the witness analysis data files
- added a couple more resources with regard to diazepam
- added a bit more info about diazepam
- corrected some information regarding diazepam
- added more info regarding Paddock’s autopsy
- added the video, Psychiatric Drugs Are More Dangerous than You Ever Imagined
- added video, THE HIDDEN COMMON THREAD THAT CONNECTS AMERICA`S MASS SHOOTINGS
- added video, Reality Check: Mass Shootings & Psychiatric Drugs
- added recently released MGM security cam video of Paddock’s movements
- minor edits